History[change | change source]
West Asia and Africa[change | change source]
Ethiopians went to South Arabia in the 2nd century and the 4th century. By 532 AD they had invaded Yemen. After this, many more Africans came to South Arabia as slaves; men were usually traded, and the women were kept as servants for the Arab leaders. Mixed-race children were more valuable in South Arabia. Two such children became Princes of the Abbassids. At this time, the Arabian army, known as the Sabaens, moved to Ethiopia. In Iraq, Bantu-speaking Africans were called Zanj. The large number of Zanj slaves working in bad conditions in Iraq lead to the famous Zanj Rebellion over fifteen years (869-883 AD). African rebels took over many of Iraq's cities forcing Arabs to flee to African nations such as Kenya, Somalia, and Tanzania. Today someone of African and Arab descent is considered Afro-Arab.
South Asia[change | change source]
As early as 1100 AD, African slaves were brought to India by Arab merchants in medieval times from the Bantu-speaking parts of eastern Africa. These Africans became known as Siddi or Habshi, Arabic word meaning Black African. Today, marriage has made the Siddi population in India much smaller. Someone of Indian and African background is considered an Indo-African. In South Asia there are over 15,000 individuals who identify as Afro-Asian.
United States[change | change source]
In 1882, the Chinese Exclusion Act was passed and Chinese workers who chose to stay in the U.S. could no longer be with their wives who stayed behind in China. Because White Americans looked at Chinese labor workers as stealing jobs, they were treated badly. Many Chinese men settled in black communities and in turn married black women.
Tiger Woods, a famous golf player, is of white, Chinese, Native American, Thai, and black descent; his father being half African American and his mother being half Thai. R&B singer Amerie is another famous Afro-Asian American, with her father being black and her mother Korean. Hines Ward, an NFL football player, is also an Afro-Asian. He currently plays for the Pittsburgh Steelers.
As of the census of 2000, there were 106,782 Afro-Asian individuals in the United States.
The West Indies[change | change source]
In the 1860s, Chinese people were imported for labor and trade. It became more common for a Chinese man to marry a black woman since there was more black women than Chinese women. According to the 1946 Census, 12,394 Chinese were located between Jamaica and Trinidad. 5,515 of those who lived in Jamaica were Chinese Jamaican and another 3,673 were Chinese-Trinidadians living in Trinidad. In Guyana and Haiti, there is also a very small percentage within the minority who are of Asian descent.
Haitian painter Edouard Wah was born to a Chinese father and Haitian mother.
United Kingdom[change | change source]
The UK has a large mixed-race population, which is about 1.4% of the population (or around 850,000 people). The largest groups are mixed Whites and Black, and mixed Whites and Asians. However there are over 70,000 UK citizens that are mixed race and do not fit the above descriptions, a large percentage of these are Afro-Asian. Famous Afro-Asian Britons include Naomi Campbell, David Jordan.
References[change | change source]
- "Black Africans in West Asia". Color Q World. http://www.colorq.org/MeltingPot/article.aspx?d=Asia&x=BlackWestAsians. Retrieved 2008-07-21.
- "Black African and Arab Intermarriage in East Africa". Color Q World. http://www.colorq.org/MeltingPot/article.aspx?d=Africa&x=ArabBlacks. Retrieved 2008-07-21.
- Pankhurst, Richard. Ports and Slaves; Coffee and Chat. "Let's Look Across the Red Sea". Addis Tribune. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20070927213800/http://www.addistribune.com/Archives/2003/02/07-02-02/Let.htm. Retrieved 7 May 2007.
- "Habshis and Siddis - Africans and African descendants in South Asia". Color Q World. http://www.colorq.org/MeltingPot/article.aspx?d=Asia&x=Habshi. Retrieved 2007-05-07.
- Mampilly, Zachariah, C.. "The African Diaspora of the Indian Sub-continent". Africana.com. http://www.the-south-asian.com/Sept2001/Indo-African_Diaspora.htm. Retrieved 2008-07-21.
- "The United States". Chinese Blacks in the Americas. Color Q World. http://www.colorq.org/MeltingPot/article.aspx?d=America&x=ChineseBlacks. Retrieved 2008-07-21.
- Le, C. N.. "Multiracial/Hapa Asian Americans". Asian-Nation: The Landscape of Asian America. http://www.asian-nation.org/multiracial.shtml. Retrieved 2008-07-21. "According to the 2000 census, out of the 281,421,906 people living in the U.S., 10,242,998 of them identified themselves as entirely of Asian race (3.6%). Additionally, there were 1,655,830 people who identified themselves as being part Asian and part one or more other races. Asian and Black/African American ... 106,782 ... 0.64% (percentage of total multiracial Asians)"
- John Middleton, The World of the Swahili.
- James de V. Allen, Swahili Origins.
- Agehananda Bharati, The Asians in East Africa: Jayhind and Uhuru.
- "The Indian Diaspora" at the UCLA Manas project