Al-Andalus (Arabic: الأندلس) was the Arabic name given to those parts of the Iberian Peninsula governed by Muslims, or Moors, at various times in the period between 711 and 1492. As a political domain or domains, it was successively a province of the Umayyad Caliphate, the Caliphate of Córdoba (929-1031), and finally the Caliphate of Córdoba's taifa (successor) kingdoms. For large parts of its history, particularly under the Caliphate of Córdoba, Andalus was famous for learning and the city of Córdoba became one of the leading cultural and economic centers in both the Mediterranean basin and the Islamic world.
In 1236, the Reconquista (gradual Christian reconquest) under the forces of Ferdinand III of Castile progressed as far as the last remaining Islamic stronghold, Granada. Granada was reduced to a vassal state to Castile for the next 256 years, until January 2, 1492, when Boabdil surrendered complete control of Granada to Ferdinand and Isabella.
Related pages [change]
- Umayyad Caliphate
- Islamic Golden Age
- History of Islam
- History of Spain
- Berber people
- "Andalus, al-" Oxford Dictionary of Islam. John L. Esposito, Ed. Oxford University Press. 2003. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press. Accessed 12 June 2006.
- Stavans, Ilan. 2003. The Scroll and the Cross: 1,000 Years of Jewish-Hispanic Literature. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-92930-X
- Wasserstein, David J. 1995. Jewish élites in Al-Andalus. In Daniel Frank (Ed.). The Jews of Medieval Islam: Community, Society and Identity. Brill. ISBN 90-04-10404-6
- Cities of Light: The Rise and Fall of Islamic Spain (Unity Productions Foundation documentary)
Other websites [change]
- Paper by Georg Bossong evaluating proposals for the etymology of "al-Andalus". In German.
- Photocopy of the Ajbar Machmu'a, translated by Lafuente 1867
- The routes of al-Andalus (from the UNESCO web site)
- Muslim contributions to Andalus
- History and influences of Andalusian music
- The Library of Iberian Resources Online
- Al-Andalus Chronology and Photos