Almohad

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Almohad Empire
الموَحدون
al-Muwahhidun

 

1121–1269
Realm of the Almohads in 1200 (light red).
Capital Marrakech, Seville
Language(s) Classical Arabic (main language), Berber languages, Mozarabic language, Hebrew, African Romance
Religion Sunni Islam (main religion), Roman Catholic, Judaism, Ibadi, Sufism
Government Caliphate
Caliph
 - 1121-1130 Ibn Tumart
 - 1266–1269 Idris II
History
 - Established 1121
 - Disestablished 1269
Area 1,621,393.5 km2 (626,024 sq mi)
Currency Dinar, Dobla Zaena, Dobla almohad
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Almoravid dynasty
Fatimid Caliphate
Majorca
Nasrid dynasty
Marinid dynasty
Hafsid dynasty
Abdalwadid
Kingdom of Murcia
Minorca
Crown of Castile
Kingdom of Portugal
Crown of Aragon

The Almohad Dynasty (From Arabic الموحدون al-Muwahhidun, i.e., "the monotheists" or "the Unitarians"), was a Berber, Muslim dynasty that was founded in the 12th century, and conquered all northern Africa as far as Libya, together with Al-Andalus (Moorish Iberia).

History[change | edit source]

Between 1130 and his death in 1163, Abd al-Mu'min al-Kumi, a Berber from the Masmuda tribe, defeated the ruling Almoravids and became ruler over all northern Africa as far as Libya. He became Emir of Marrakech in 1149 and conquered Al-Andalus, Moorish Iberia. In 1170 the Almohads transferred their capital to Seville. But by 1212 Muhammad III, "al-Nasir" (1199–1214) was defeated by an alliance of the four Christian princes of Castile, Aragón, Kingdom of Navarre and Portugal, at the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa in the Sierra Morena. The Almohads lost nearly all of the Moorish dominions in Iberia soon after. The great Moorish cities of Córdoba and Seville fell into Christian possession in the first half of the 13th century. The Almohads continued to rule in Africa for some time, but they lost a lot of their territory. The last representative of the line, Idris II, had only Marrakech left. There he was murdered by a slave in 1269.

Muwahhadi (Almohad) Caliphs,1121–1269[change | edit source]

The Alhomad ‎minaret in Safi
Map showing the area of Almohad control in Spain and the paths of counter-attacks from Castile (C) and Aragón (A). ((L) Leon, (P) Portugal, (N) Navarre)
  • Ibn Tumart 1121-1130
  • Abd al-Mu'min 1130–1163
  • Abu Ya'qub Yusuf I 1163–1184
  • Abu Yusuf Ya'qub al-Mansur 1184–1199
  • Muhammad an-Nasir 1199–1213
  • Abu Ya'qub Yusuf II 1213–1224
  • Abd al-Wahid I 1224
  • Abdallah al-Adil 1224–1227
  • Yahya 1227–1235
  • Idris I 1227–1232
  • Abdul-Wahid II 1232–1242
  • Ali 1242–1248
  • Umar 1248–1266
  • Idris II 1266–1269

Culture[change | edit source]

Sufi writers.

  • Sidi Abu Madyan Choaïb ben al-Houssein al-Ansari (1126-1198)
  • Ali ibn Harzihim (m.1164)
  • Abi Mohammed Salih (1153-1234)
  • Abu Abdallah ibn Harzihim (m.1235)
  • Abu-l-Hassan ash-Shadhili (1197-1258)
  • Abdelwahid al-Marrakushi (b. 1185) historian and writer
  • Salih ben Sharif al-Rundi (1204-1285)

Reference[change | edit source]

  • History of the Almonades, Reinhart Dozy, (second edition, 1881)
  • Mica Enciclopedie de Istorie Universala, Marcel D. Popa, Horia C. Matei, (Bucharest, Editura Politica 1988)

Related pages[change | edit source]

Other websites[change | edit source]