|East, North, Central, and West Asia and Eastern Europe|
|Linguistic classification:||Proposed major language family|
Koreanic (generally included)
Japonic (generally included)
|ISO 639-2 and 639-5:||tut|
Distribution of the Altaic languages across Eurasia.
According to the best-known classification of Altaic, it consists of the Turkic languages, Mongolic, and the Tungusic languages. It is probably fair to say that this is the meaning attributed to "Altaic" by most general linguists.
However, since the publication of Gustaf John Ramstedt's Einführung in 1952–1957, most Altaicists have included Korean in Altaic. Since the publication of Roy Andrew Miller's Japanese and the Other Altaic Languages in 1971, most have also included Japanese (Nicholas Poppe) or better Japonic, consisting of Japanese and Ryukyuan.
A few linguists even count Ainu with the Altaic languages, but as part of a node including Korean and Japanese, in contradistinction to a Turkic-Mongolic-Tungusic node, with Korean-Japanese-Ainu and Turkic-Mongolic-Tungusic in turn forming a node at a higher level (e.g. Street 1962).
The core version of Altaic, consisting of Turkic, Mongolic, and Tungusic, is sometimes referred to as "Micro-Altaic" while the expanded version, including Korean or Korean and Japanese, is referred to as "Macro-Altaic".
References[change | change source]
- Altaic languages
- Altaic Language Family Tree Ethnologue report for Altaic.
- Georg, S., Michalove, P.A., Manaster Ramer, A., Sidwell, P.J.: "Telling general linguists about Altaic", Journal of Linguistics 35 (1999): 65-98 Online abstract
Other websites[change | change source]
- Altaic family tree Ethnologue
- Altaic languages MSN Encarta
- Monumenta altaica Altaic linguistics website
- Altaic etymology section in StarLing databases
- Defense of Altaic by Alexis Manaster Ramer (1994)