Alveolar approximant

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Alveolar approximant
ɹ
IPA number 151
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ɹ
Unicode (hex) U+0279
X-SAMPA r\
Kirshenbaum r
Sound

 

The alveolar approximant is a consonant. We use it in some spoken languages. International Phonetic Alphabet represents the alveolar and postalveolar approximants as ⟨ɹ⟩. International Phonetic Alphabet represents it as a lowercase letter r rotated 180 degrees, or in broad transcriptionr⟩; the X-SAMPA symbol of this is ⟨r\⟩.

Many times the symbol is written as ⟨r⟩ instead of ⟨ɹ⟩ because it is easier when typing.

Occurrence[change | edit source]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Armenian Eastern սուրճ [suɹtʃʰ] 'coffee'
Chukchi ңирэк [ŋiɹek] 'two'
Dutch Goois door [doəɹ] 'through' Most dialects use an alveolar tap or trill. See Dutch phonology
Leiden dialect rat [ɹat] 'rat'
English American dialects[1] red [ɹ̠ˤʷɛd] 'red' Often retracted and labialized. In non-rhotic dialects, it occurs only before a vowel. May also be a labialized retroflex approximant; corresponds to an alveolar trill or alveolar tap in a few other dialects. For convenience it is often transcribed <r>. See English phonology
Australian
Received Pronunciation
Faroese róður [ɹɔuwʊɹ] 'rudder'
German Westerwald[2] Rebe [ɹeːbə] 'vine shoot' Most other dialects use a voiced uvular fricative or uvular trill. See German phonology
Siegerland[3]
Upper Lusatian
Portuguese Many Central-Southern Brazilian dialects[source?] verde [ˈveɹdʒɪ] 'green' Syllable-final allophone of rhotic consonant and also /l/. See Portuguese phonology
Some countryside Central-Southern Brazilian dialects[source?] temporal [tẽjpoˈɾaɹ] 'rainstorm'
Spanish Some dialects[4] doscientos [do̞ɹˈθje̞nto̞s] 'two hundred' Allophone of /s/ in the syllable coda. See Spanish phonology
Vietnamese rơ [ɹəː] 'to clean' See Vietnamese phonology
Zapotec Tilquiapan[5] r [ɹd̪ɨ] 'pass' Allophone of /ɾ/ before any consonant.

Notes[change | edit source]

References[change | edit source]

  • Boyce, S.; Espy-Wilson, C. (1997), "Coarticulatory stability in American English /r/", Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 101 (6): 3741–3753, doi:10.1121/1.418333, PMID 9193061
  • Browman, L.; Goldstein (1995), "Gestural syllable position in American English", in Bell-Berti, F., Producing Speech: Contemporary issues for K Harris, New York: AIP, pp. 9–33
  • Delattre, P.; Freeman, D.C. (1968), "A dialect study of American R's by x-ray motion picture", Linguistics 44: 29–68
  • Fougeron, C (1999), "Prosodically conditioned articulatory variation: A Review", UCLA Working Papers in Phonetics, 97, pp. 1–73
  • Hallé, Pierre A.; Best, Catherine T.; Levitt, Andrea; Andrea (1999), "Phonetic vs. phonological influences on French listeners' perception of American English approximants", Journal of Phonetics 27 (3): 281–306, doi:10.1006/jpho.1999.0097
  • Kohler, Klaus (1995), Einführung in die Phonetik des Deutschen, Berlin: Erich Schmidt Verlag
  • Merrill, Elizabeth (2008), "Tilquiapan Zapotec", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 38 (1): 107–114
  • Recasens, Daniel (2004), "The effect of syllable position on consonant reduction (evidence fromCatalan consonant clusters)", Journal of Phonetics 32 (3): 435–453, doi:10.1016/j.wocn.2004.02.001
  • Zawadski, P.A.; Kuehn, D.P. (1980), "A cineradiographic study of static and dynamic aspects of American English /r/", Phonetica 37 (4): 253–266, doi:10.1159/000259995, PMID 7443796