Arctic ecology is the science that studies the ecology of the arctic. The arctic is all land and water north of the Arctic Circle (66 33’). This area is very cold and has little rain. In the winter there is almost no sunlight. The growing season, when farmers can grow crops, is very short.
The arctic environment includes both land and water. Two important parts of this environment are sea ice and permafrost.
Sea ice is ice that floats in the ocean. It is made of frozen seawater. It is important because animals live and sleep on the ice, especially in winter. Sea ice lasts all year and never melts completely. There is less ice during the summer than during the winter.
Lots of land in the arctic is frozen all year long. Permafrost is a substrate (layer of soil) that has been frozen for two or more years. The dirt on top of the permafrost is called the active layer. This dirt melts during the summer and is important for plants to grow.
Food Chain [change]
In the arctic region there is less food. The algae is eaten by small insects. These insects are eaten by plankton. These are eaten by small fish these are eaten by big fish. Now, these are eaten by seals. Seals are at last eaten by polar bears.