Baldwin V, Count of Flanders

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The Seal of Baldwin V of Flanders.

Baldwin V of Flanders (1012–1067) known as Baldwin de Lille or Baldwin de Insulanus,[a] was a French nobleman and the Count of Flanders. He ruled from 1035 until his death. Baldwin was one of the most powerful counts in France at the time.

Early career[change | change source]

He was the son of Baldwin IV, Count of Flanders and his first wife Ogive of Luxembourg.[2] She was a daughter of Frederick of Luxembourg,[3] In 1028 Baldwin married Adèle of France[4] She was the daughter of King Robert II of France.[2] At her instigation he rebelled against his father, Baldwin IV, but in 1030 they were reconciled. When his father died in 1035 Baldwin succeeded him.[2]

Count of Flanders[change | change source]

While Eustace I, Count of Boulogne was usually at odds with Baldwin IV, he and Baldwin V had friendly relations.[5] They signed each other's charters and worked together several times. Eustace I signed three charters of Baldwin's which limited the power of advocates.[b]

Flanders under Baldwin V did not have very good relations with England.[9] Baldwin gave refuge to England's exiles and even gave them ships and men at times.[9] He protected Queen Emma 1036-1040 as well as her two sons Alfred and Harthacnut.[9] When Earl Godwin, Earl of Wessex and his family were exiled by Edward the Confessor in 1051-2, Baldwin welcomed them. He also helped them to prepare their return to England.[9] In turn Edward the Confessor positioned his fleet off the coast of Flanders while Baldwin V was warring with Henry III, Holy Roman Emperor in 1049. This threat caused Baldwin to sue for peace with the Emperor.[9]

Baldwin V had a great deal of influence due in part to several marriages alliance between Flanders and England, France and Germany.[10] He was close to his brother-in-law, Henry I,the king of France.[10] From 1060 to 1067 Baldwin was the Regent for his nephew Philip I of France.[9] In 1051 Baldwin had coerced Richildis, the widow of Count Herman of Hainault, to marry his son Baldwin VI.[11] This gave him control of Hainault through his son. This also led to a series of conflicts between Baldwin V and Emperor Henry III, as Hainault was part of the Holy Roman Empire.[11] After a series of defeats Henry III withdrew back to Germany and died a short time later. In 1056 Baldwin received the whole of the Schelt march as a fief from Agnes of Poitou, regent for her son Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor.[12] Baldwin's daughter Matilda married William I of England, later king of England.[11] At first the marriage was banned by Pope Leo IX. He did not give a reason but it was probably because the two were cousins.[13] Some time between 1050 and 1052 the two married despite the papal ban.[13] Although Baldwin allowed some Flemish support for his Norman conquest of England relations between Baldwin and his son-in-law William the Conqueror were not that friendly.[14] The English king was wary of Baldwin's growing power.[11] But by then Baldwin was growing old. He died 1 September 1067.[2]

Family[change | change source]

Baldwin and his wife Adèle had three children:

Notes[change | change source]

  1. Both these nicknames refer to his castle at Lille. De Lille (French: "of Lille") and Insulanus (Latin: Islander) because the castle was on an island.[1]
  2. Most monasteries in tenth and eleventh century Frankia had advocates (Latin: advocatus). An advocate was a nobleman who had an interest in protecting a monastery.[6] He would collect revenues for the monks. He represented them in legal cases. He would also protect their lands from attacks by others.[6] For this he received a portion of the rents. Advocacy of wealthy monasteries could be very profitable. But advocate abuse was not uncommon.[7] It could develop into taking from the very church or monastery they were paid to protect. Some interfered in Church affairs.[7] Baldwin V's charters limited the power of advocates in Flanders.[8] This was to make sure the advocated protected the church; not exploited it.[8]

References[change | change source]

  1. Adriaan Verhulst, The Rise of Cities in North-West Europe (Cambridge, UK; New York: Cambridge University Press; Paris: Editions de la Maison des Sciences de l'Homme, 1999), p. 106
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 Detlev Schwennicke, Europäische Stammtafeln: Stammtafeln zur Geschichte der Europäischen Staaten, Neue Folge, Band II (Marburg, Germany: J. A. Stargardt, 1984), Tafel 5
  3. Richard Mylius Sherman, The Ghents: A Flemish Family in Norman England, UMI Dissertation Information Service, Ann Arbor, MI (1988), p. 214
  4. David Nicholas, Medieval Flanders ( New York: Longman, 1992), p. 48
  5. Heather J. Tanner, Families, Friends, and Allies: Boulogne and Politics in Northern France and England, c. 879-1160 (Leiden; Boston : Brill, 2004), p. 83
  6. 6.0 6.1 Constance Brittain Bouchard, Sword, Miter, and Cloister: Nobility and the Church in Burgundy, 980-1198 (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2009), p. 125
  7. 7.0 7.1 Susan Wood, The Proprietary Church in the Medieval West (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006), p. 330
  8. 8.0 8.1 Jean Dunbabin, France in the Making 843-1180, Second Edition (Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2005), p. 210
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 Eljas Oksanen, Flanders and the Anglo-Norman World, 1066-1216 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012), p. 11
  10. 10.0 10.1 Renée Nip, 'The Political Relations Between England and Flanders (1066-1128), Anglo-Norman Studies XXI: Proceedings of the Battle Conference 1998, ed. Christopher Harper-Bill (Woodbridge: Boydell Press, 1999), pp. 146-47
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 Renée Nip, 'The Political Relations Between England and Flanders (1066-1128), Anglo-Norman Studies XXI: Proceedings of the Battle Conference 1998, ed. Christopher Harper-Bill (Woodbridge: Boydell Press, 1999), p. 147
  12. Jean Dunbabin, France in the Making 843-1180, Second Edition (Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2005), p. 209
  13. 13.0 13.1 David C. Douglas, William The Conqueror (Berkeley; Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1964), p. 76
  14. Renée Nip, 'The Political Relations Between England and Flanders (1066-1128), Anglo-Norman Studies XXI: Proceedings of the Battle Conference 1998, ed. Christopher Harper-Bill (Woodbridge: Boydell Press, 1999), p. 145