The basal ganglia (or basal nuclei) are three areas under the cerebral cortex. They are part of the cerebrum (forebrain), and connected to the midbrain and the thalamus. They are vital to movement, and damage here results in damaged ability to move.
The three areas are:
- caudate nucleus
- pallidum (or globus pallidus)
- substantia nigra
- nucleus accubens
- subthalamic nucleus
The range of behaviours controlled by the nuclei is wide. They control eye movements. They do voluntary motor control, learning procedures for routine behaviors or "habits", and cognitive emotional functions.
The basal ganglia also also control motivation. They select actions, that is, the choice of which behaviors to do at a given time. Experimental studies show that the basal ganglia inhibit (suppress) a number of motor systems. A release of this inhibition lets a motor system act. This "behavior switching" is influenced by signals from many parts of the brain, including the prefrontal cortex, which plays a key role in executive functions (doing things).
Evolution[change | edit source]
The basal ganglia form one of the basic components of the forebrain, and can be recognized in all species of vertebrates. Even in the lamprey (one of the most primitive vertebrates), striatal, pallidal, and nigral elements can be identified by their anatomy and histochemistry.
References[change | edit source]
- Hikosaka, O; Takikawa, Y; Kawagoe, R (2000). "Role of the basal ganglia in the control of purposive saccadic eye movements". Physiological reviews 80 (3): 953–78. PMID 10893428.
- Stocco, Andrea; Lebiere, Christian; Anderson, John R. (2010). "Conditional routing of information to the cortex: a model of the basal ganglia's role in cognitive coordination". Psychological Review 117 (2): 541–74. doi:10.1037/a0019077. PMC 3064519. PMID 20438237.
- Weyhenmeyer, James A.; Gallman, Eve. A. (2007). Rapid review of neuroscience. Mosby Elsevier. p. 102. ISBN 0-323-02261-8.
- Chakravarthy, V. S.; Joseph, Denny; Bapi, Raju S. (2010). "What do the basal ganglia do? A modeling perspective". Biological Cybernetics 103 (3): 237–53. doi:10.1007/s00422-010-0401-y. PMID 20644953.
- Cameron IG, Watanabe M, Pari G, Munoz DP. (2010). "Executive impairment in Parkinson's disease: response automaticity and task switching". Neuropsychologia 48 (7): 1948–57. doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2010.03.015. PMID 20303998.
- Parent A (1986). Comparative neurobiology of the basal ganglia. Wiley. ISBN 978-0-471-80348-5.
- Grillner S. et al (1998). "Intrinsic function of a neuronal network — a vertebrate central pattern generator1". Brain Research Reviews 26 (2–3): 184–97. doi:10.1016/S0165-0173(98)00002-2. PMID 9651523.