بشار حافظ الأسد
|President of Syria|
17 July 2000
|Preceded by||Abdul Halim Khaddam (Acting)|
|Regional Secretary of the Regional Command of the Syrian Regional Branch|
24 June 2000
|Preceded by||Hafez al-Assad|
|Member of the Regional Command of the Syrian Regional Branch|
21 June 2000
|Born||Bashar Hafez al-Assad
11 September 1965
|Political party||Ba'ath Party|
|National Progressive Front|
|Alma mater||Damascus University|
|Service/branch||Syrian Armed Forces|
|Years of service||1988–|
Presently serving as commander-in-chief
|Battles/wars||Syrian civil war (2011–)|
Assad has had those jobs since the death of his father Hafez al-Assad (1930-2000), who had ruled Syria since 1971. Bashar al-Assad was elected in 2000, and re-elected in 2007. He was unopposed each time.
Early life[change | edit source]
Assad was born on 11 September 1965 in Damascus, Syria to Hafez al-Assad. He had two brothers, Bassel al-Assad and Shabbih Maher al-Assad, and one sister, Bushra al-Assad. Bashar was quiet and reserved and says that he lacked interest in politics or the military.
Education[change | edit source]
His father wanted Assad's brother Bassel to succeed him as leader of Syria. Bassel died in a car accident in 1994, and Assad returned home to Syria.
Early career[change | edit source]
Presidency[change | edit source]
When his father died, the government changed the constitution. Under Syrian law the president had to be at least 40 years old. With law changed, Assad was able to be elected President of Syria in June 2000. He was also made commander in chief of the armed forces, and leader of the Ba'ath Party which has ruled Syria since 1961.
2011 Syrian Civil War[change | edit source]
Since March 2011, civil war took place in Syria. He has responded the protest and violence with the use of his force. By June 2013 93,000 people have been killed from all sides.
Bashar was considered a younger-generation Arab leader, who would bring change to Syria, a region long filled with aging dictators. He was well-educated, and many believed he would be capable of transforming his father's iron-rule regime into a modern state.
Personal life[change | edit source]
Assad is married to Asma al-Akhras. Together, they have three children; Hafez, Jr., Zein, and Karim al-Assad.
Influenced by his western education and urban upbringing, Bashar initially seemed eager to implement a cultural revolution in Syria.
References[change | edit source]
- "Bashar al-Assad (president of Syria) --". Britannica Online Encyclopedia. 2012. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/711020/Bashar-al-Assad?anchor=ref838844. Retrieved 27 October 2012.
- "Syrians Vote For Assad in Uncontested Referendum". The Washington Post. 28 May 2007. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/05/27/AR2007052701117.html.
- "Syria's Assad wins another term". BBC News. 29 May 2007. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/6700021.stm.
- "Bashar al-Assad Biography - Facts, Birthday, Life Story". biography.com. 2012. http://www.biography.com/people/bashar-al-assad-20878575. Retrieved 27 October 2012.
Other websites[change | edit source]
|Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Bashar al-Assad|
- President Al-Assad on Facebook
- Official website
- Profile at the LookLex Encyclopedia
- Unofficial website
- Unofficial website
- Bashar al-Assad at the Internet Movie Database
- Syria’s Proxy Forces in Iraq, Al-Hayat (London), 12 April 2003 at Middle East Intelligence Bulletin
- Profile: Syria's Bashar al-Assad BBC News, 10 March 2005
- Bashar al-Assad's Lebanon Gamble, William Harris, Middle East Quarterly, Summer 2005
- Assad on the Brink, David Hirst, The Nation, 21 November 2005
- Syria's Leaders, Esther Pan, Council on Foreign Relations, 10 March 2006
- Connecting the dots in Lebanon, Omar Raad, Ya Libnan Volunteer, 2 December 2006
- The Assad Dynasty in Syria: From Father to Son, Kristin Helberg, Deutsche Welle, 2009 at qantara.de
- Interview With Syrian President Bashar al-Assad, The Wall Street Journal, 31 January 2011
- Profile: Bashar al-Assad, Al Jazeera English, 25 March 2011