Battle of Iwo Jima

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Coordinates: 24°47′N 141°19′E

Battle of Iwo Jima
Part of World War II, Pacific War
37mm Gun fires against cave positions at Iwo Jima.jpg
A U.S. 37 mm (1.5 in) gun fires against Japanese cave positions in the north face of Mount Suribachi
Date February 19 – March 26 , 1945
Location Iwo Jima, Japan
Result Decisive U.S. victory
Participants
 United States  Empire of Japan
Commanders and leaders
Holland Smith
Marc Mitscher
Tadamichi Kuribayashi 
Strength
70,000 18,061–18,591[1]
Casualties and losses
6,822 killed/missing[2]
19,217 wounded[1]
17,845–18,375 killed/missing[1]
216 captured[1]

The Battle of Iwo Jima was the American capture of the Japanese island of Iwo Jima during the Pacific Campaign of World War II. The USA needed to capture Iwo Jima to be able to defeat Japan. Many films were made about it for example Flags of our Fathers and Letters from Iwo Jima, both directed by Clint Eastwood.

It lasted from 19 February – 26 March 1945. It was major battle in which the United States Armed Forces captured the island of Iwo Jima from the Japanese Empire.

The Americans wanted to capture the island, including its three airfields. The US wanted to use this area for attacks on the Japanese main islands.[2] This five-week battle had violent fighting.

After the heavy losses in the battle, people questioned why the US went into the battle. The island was not useful for the Navy or Air Force.[3] I

The Imperial Japanese Army was defended with thick defences and underground tunnels.[4][5] The Americans had ships that could fire on the island and total control of the air.[6] This invasion was the first American attack on Japanese home territory. Japanese soldiers refused to surrender.

The Japanese general, Tadamichi Kuribayashi, refused to surrender. He and his officers said they would fight until they died.

Iwo Jima was the only battle by the U.S. Marine Corps in which the number killed and wounded were higher than those of the Japanese.[7] There were 22,000 Japanese soldiers on Iwo Jima at the beginning of the battle, only 216 were taken prisoner at the end.[1]

About 3000 Japanese soldiers kept fighting for weeks.[1][8]

The Japanese could not retreat or get new soldiers. This meant that the Americans had to win the battle.[9]

The battle was made famous by Joe Rosenthal's photograph of the raising of the U.S. flag on top of the 166 m (545 ft) Mount Suribachi.

This photo became an important image of this battle, of the war in the Pacific, and of the Marine Corps.[10]

Background[change | change source]

Location of Iwo Jima

After the Americans captured the Marshall Islands in January 1944, the Japanese military leaders thought about their situation.

It looked like the Americans would go toward the Mariana Islands and the Carolines. The Imperial Japanese Army and the Imperial Japanese Navy (I.J.N.) set up a line of defences.

In March 1945, the Japanese 31st Army, commanded by General Hideyoshi Obata, was ordered to defend this line.

The commander of the Japanese group on Chichi Jima was placed in command of Army and Navy units in the Volcano Islands.[2] After the American capture of the Marianas, they bombed Japan every day. Iwo Jima radioed reports bombers to Japan. This allowed Japan to defend itself against the American bombers.[2]

After the U.S. captured bases in the Marshalls in February 1944, Japanese Army and Navy troops were sent to Iwo Jima. Iwo Jima had more than 5,000 men.[2]

The loss of the Marianas during the summer of 1944 made the Japanese worried about the Volcano Islands. They knew that if the Americans captured these islands, they could do air attacks on Japan.[2] It was hard for Japan to defend the Volcano Islands because Imperial Japanese Navy had lost almost all of its ships.

Japan could not build new airplanes until March or April 1945. Even then, these planes could not fly to Iwo Jima from Japan. Japan did mot have enough pilots and other aircrew.

Iwo Jima was important for two reasons. It was an air base for Japanese fighter planes and it was a safe place for Japanese ships. In addition, it was used by the Japanese to do air attacks on the Mariana Islands.

The capture of Iwo Jima would take away this air base from the Japanese. It would also provide a place to launch the invasion of Japan.

Experts thought Iwo Jima would be captured in one week. The US decided to invade Iwo Jima. Hundreds of tons of Allied bombs did not harm the Japanese defenders, since they were protected.

Planning and preparation[change | change source]

Japanese preparations[change | change source]

By June 1944, Lieutenant General Tadamichi Kuribayashi was ordered to defend Iwo Jima. Kuribayashi knew that Japan could not win the battle. He hoped to kill so many American forces that the Allies would decide not to invade Japan.

Kuribayashi created strong defences with heavy weapons such as heavy machine guns and artillery. Many tunnels were dug. Land mines were placed all over the island.

The amphibious landing[change | change source]

The battleship USS New York firing its 356 mm (14.0 in) main guns on the island, 16 February 1945
LVTs approach Iwo Jima.

Starting on 15 June 1944, the U.S. Navy and the U.S. Army Air Forces began to attack the island. Naval artillery shellings and air bombings were done for nine months. Each heavy warship fired for approximately six hours.

The American bombings and continued until 19 February 1945. This was the day the Marines went onto the island. The bombing did not harm the enemy because they had thick defences.

About 450 American ships were near Iwo Jima. The battle involved about 60,000 U.S. Marines.[11]

Members of the 1st Battalion 23rd Marines burrow in the volcanic sand on the beach of Iwo Jima, as their comrades unload supplies and equipment from landing vessels despite the artillery fire from enemy positions in the background

At 08:59, 30,000 Marines began landing on the beach. The Japanese did not fire their guns fire for some time. Then the Japanese started firing and many in the first group of Marines were killed by the machine guns.[12]

The Japanese heavy artillery opened their steel doors to fire, and then closed them after. This made it difficult for American units to destroy Japanese artillery.[12] The Japanese soldiers hid in the tunnel system.

With tanks, naval artillery and air bombing on Mount Suribachi, the Marines were able to get past the beaches.[12] About 40,000 more Marines came later.[12]

The fighting on at Iwo Jima was very violent. The advance of the Marines was stopped by defensive positions and artillery. The Marines used flamethrowers and grenades to kill Japanese troops in the tunnels.

Eight Sherman M4A3R3 medium tanks with a flamethrower destroyed Japanese defences. The Japanese ran out of water, food and supplies. The Japanese made more nighttime attacks. Most Japanese soldiers fought to the death.[12]

Raising the flag[change | change source]

U.S. postage stamp, 1945 issue, commemorating the Battle of Iwo Jima
U.S. flag over Mount Suribachi

"Raising the Flag on Iwo Jima" is a photograph taken on 23 February 1945 by Joe Rosenthal. It shows five Marines and a U.S. Navy corpsman raising the flag of the United States on Mount Suribachi.[10] The photograph was popular. It won a Pulitzer Prize for Photography.[10]

The Japanese troops stayed in the tunnels . They were all killed.[12]

Northern Iwo Jima[change | change source]

A U.S. Marine firing his Browning M1917 machine gun at the Japanese
Several M4A3 Sherman tanks with flamethrowers were used to attack Japanese bunkers

The Japanese still held positions on the north end.[13] Kuribayashi had eight infantry battalions, a tank regiment, and two artillery and three heavy mortar battalions. Also he had about 5,000 gunners and naval infantry.

The Marines' tanks were destroyed fire and mines.[14] Many Americans were killed or wounded.

The Marines attacked in the darkness with no bombing before the attack. Many Japanese soldiers were killed while still sleeping.[15]

On the evening of 8 March, Captain Samaji Inouye and his 1,000 men attacked the American. This caused 347 casualties (90 deaths). The Marines counted 784 dead Japanese soldiers the next day.[16]

There was also a kamikaze air attack on the ships anchored at sea on 21 February. This sunk the escort carrier USS Bismarck Sea, severely damaged the USS Saratoga. There was minor damage to the escort carrier USS Lunga Point, an LST and a transport.[15]

On 16 March, Kuribayashi's soldiers were still alive on the northwestern end of the island. On 21 March, the Marines blew up the Japanese with four tons of explosives. On 24 March, Marines sealed up the caves.[17]

A 300-man Japanese force attacked Airfield No. 2. There was a 90 minute fight but suffered heavy casualties (53 killed, 120 wounded). The island was finally captured at 09:00 on 26 March.

Weapons[change | change source]

A flamethrower operator of Co. E, 2nd Battalion 9th Marines runs under fire on Iwo Jima

A weapon heavily used in the Pacific was the United States M2 flamethrower.[18] These flamethrowers were used to kill Japanese in caves.

Marines put flamethrowers on tanks which were used during battle. They were not that useful because of Iwo Jima's rough land.

Aftermath[change | change source]

U.S. Marines pose on top of enemy pillbox with a captured Japanese flag

Of the 22,060 Japanese soldiers on the island, 18,844 died from fighting or by suicide. Only 216 were captured during the battle. After Iwo Jima, 3,000 hid in the tunnels.

The 36-day Iwo Jima battle caused more than 26,000 American casualties, including 6,800 dead."[19] The 82-day Battle for Okinawa resulted in casualties of over 62,000 of whom over 12,000 were killed or missing. Iwo Jima was also the only U.S. Marine battle where the American had more dead or wounded than the Japanese,.[7]

Because all civilians had been removed, there were no civilian casualties at Iwo Jima, unlike at Saipan and Okinawa.[20]

Strategic importance[change | change source]

Lieutenant Wade discusses overall importance of target at pre-invasion briefing
American supplies being landed at Iwo Jima

Given the number of casualties, the importance of the island's capture[21] was controversial.

The island's emergency landing field was used by bombers carrying the atomic bombs to Japan in late 1945.

The argument for capturing Iwo Jima was that it provided a landing and refueling airfield for fighter escorts. Yet only ten missions were ever flown from Iwo Jima.[22]

Japanse fighter aircraft based on Iwo Jima sometimes attacked US forces. Only 11 B-29s were lost.[23]

Marines from the 24th Marine Regiment during the Battle of Iwo Jima

The Japanese on Iwo Jima had radar[24] and could notify Japanese forces at home of B-29 Superfortresses flying from the Mariana Islands.

However, the capture of Iwo Jima did not affect the Japanese radar system.[25]

Legacy[change | change source]

The memorial on top of Suribachi
The 60th anniversary Reunion at the Japanese part of the memorial

The United States Navy has several ships of the name USS Iwo Jima.

On 19 February 1985, the 40th anniversary of the landings, an event called the Reunion of Honor was held.[source?] The veterans of both sides who fought in the battle of Iwo Jima attended the event. A memorial was built. Representatives of both countries shook hands.

The importance of the battle to Marines today can be seen. Marines go to the island and to the summit of Suribachi.[26]

The Japanese government continues to search for the bodies of Japanese military troops who were killed during the battle.[27]

Medal of Honor awards[change | change source]

CPL Jacobson with President Harry Truman after receiving the Medal of Honor

The Medal of Honor is the highest military decoration awarded by the United States government. It is given to a member of the United States armed forces who show bravery and risks his life in a battle. The medal is often awarded after death. It has been given only 3,464 times.

During this one-month-long battle, 27 U.S. military personnel were given the Medal of Honor for their actions, 14 of them after death.

Movies and documentaries[change | change source]

Notes[change | change source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 Burrell 2006, p. 83. Burrell talks about how many historians have overestimated the number Japanese defenders, with 20,000 and even 25,000 listed. Burrell puts the range between 18,060 and 18,600, with exactly 216 of these taken prisoner. The rest were killed in action.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 Morison, Samuel Eliot (2002) [1960]. Victory in the Pacific, 1945. Volume 14 of History of United States Naval Operations in World War II. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press. ISBN 0-252-07065-8 . OCLC 49784806 .
  3. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Newsweek_Pratt_19450402.
  4. "Letters from Iwo Jima". World War II Multimedia Database. http://www.worldwar2database.com/html/letters_from_iwo_jima.htm.
  5. "Battle of Iwo Jima—Japanese Defense". World War II Naval Strategy. http://www.battle-fleet.com/pw/his/Battle-Iwo-Jima-Defense.htm.
  6. (1945). Video: Carriers Hit Tokyo! 1945/03/19 (1945). Universal Newsreel. Retrieved on 22 February 2012.
  7. 7.0 7.1 O'Brien, Cyril J.. "Iwo Jima Retrospective". Archived from the original on 7 June 2007. http://www.military.com/NewContent/0,13190,NI_Iwo_Jima2,00.html. Retrieved 21 June 2007.
  8. John Toland, Rising Sun - The Decline and Fall of the Japanese Empire 1936-1945, page 669
  9. Adrian R. Lewis, The American Culture of War. The History of U.S. Military Force from World War II to Operation Iraqi Freedom, New York 2007, p. 59
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 Landsberg, Mitchell (1995). "Fifty Years Later, Iwo Jima Photographer Fights His Own Battle". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 5 September 2007. http://www.ap.org/pages/about/pulitzer/rosenthal.html. Retrieved 11 September 2007.
  11. "United States Marine Corps War Memorial". The George Washington University. http://www.gwu.edu/~memory/issues/museums/IwoJima.html. Retrieved 28 February 2011.
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 12.5 Allen, Robert E. (2004). The First Battalion of the 28th Marines on Iwo Jima: A Day-by-Day History from Personal Accounts and Official Reports, with Complete Muster Rolls. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland & Company. ISBN 0-7864-0560-0 . OCLC 41157682 .
  13. Keith Wheeler, THE ROAD TO TOKYO, Time-Life Books, 1979, Alexandria, Virginia, p.50
  14. Robert Leckie, DELIVERED FROM EVIL, Harper & Row, 1987, New York, p870
  15. 15.0 15.1 Robert Leckie, p.872
  16. Keith Wheeler
  17. Moskin, pp.372–373
  18. "Flamethrower". http://americanhistory.si.edu/militaryhistory/collection/object.asp?ID=246. Retrieved 28 February 2011.
  19. "Battle for Iwo Jima, 1945". The Navy Department Library. 16January 2008. http://www.history.navy.mil/library/online/battleiwojima.htm.
  20. "Selected March Dates of Marine Corps Historical Significance". History Division, United States Marine Corps. http://www.tecom.usmc.mil/HD/This_Month_History/03_March.htm. Retrieved 11 September 2007.
  21. "The Battle of Iwo Jima". History Department at the University of San Diego. http://history.sandiego.edu/gen/WW2Timeline/LUTZ/iwo.html. Retrieved 10 March 2010.
  22. Assistant Chief of Air Staff (September–October 1945). "Iwo, B-29 Haven and Fighter Springboard". Impact: pp. 69–71.
  23. Craven, Wesley Frank; James Lea Cate (1953). The Army Air Forces in World War II. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. pp. 5:581–82. ISBN 0-226-11995-5 . OCLC 704158 .
  24. Newcomb, Richard F. (2002). Iwo Jima. Holt Paperbacks. p. 59. ISBN 0-8050-7071-0 . http://books.google.com/?id=iPvmNzkuLn4C&pg=PA59.
  25. Joint War Planning Committee 306/1, "Plan for the Seizure of Rota Island," 25 January 1945.
  26. Blumenstein, LCpl Richard; Sgt. Ethan E. Rocke (October–December 2007). "From Black Sands to Suribachi’s Summit: Marines Reflect on Historic Battle". Marines Magazine (United States Marine Corps). http://www.mcnews.info/mcnewsinfo/marines/2007/20072nd/onliberty/Suribachi.shtml. Retrieved 18 December 2008.
  27. Kyodo News, "Map of Iwojima's underground bunkers found in U.S.", Japan Times, 6 May 2012, p. 2.
  28. "Outsider (1961)". imdb. http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0055270/. Retrieved 2 January 2008.

References[change | change source]

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  • Toyn, Gary W. (2006). The Quiet Hero: The Untold Medal of Honor Story of George E. Wahlen at the Battle for Iwo Jima. Clearfield, Utah: American Legacy Media. ISBN 0-9761547-1-4
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  • Veronee, Marvin D. (2001). A portfolio of photographs: selected to illustrate the setting for my experience in the battle of Iwo Jima, World War II, Pacific theater. Quantico: Visionary Pub.. ISBN 0-9715928-2-9
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  • Wells, John K. (1995). Give Me Fifty Marines Not Afraid to Die: Iwo Jima. Abilene, Tex.: Quality Publications. ISBN 0-9644675-0-X
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Online[change | change source]

      . http://www.nps.gov/wapa/indepth/extContent/usmc/pcn-190-003131-00/index.htm.
  • Bartley, LtCol. Whitman S., USMC (1954). Iwo Jima: Amphibious Epic. Marines in World War II Historical Monograph. Washington, D.C.: Historical, Division of Public Information, Headquarters, United States Marine Corps. OCLC 28592680
      . http://www.ibiblio.org/hyperwar/USMC/USMC-M-IwoJima/index.html.
  • Garand, George W.; Truman R. Strobridge (1971). "Part VI: Iwo Jima". Western Pacific Operations. Volume IV of History of U.S. Marine Corps Operations in World War II. Historical Branch, United States Marine Corps. ISBN 0-89839-198-9
      . http://www.ibiblio.org/hyperwar/USMC/IV/USMC-IV-VI-1.html.

Other websites[change | change source]