A cliff is a vertical or very steep natural wall. They are usually formed when erosion takes away soft material, revealing an exposed layer of hard rock. Cliffs are often found by the ocean, on mountains, in canyons, and along rivers. Cliffs are known for forming major geographical features such as waterfalls.
Major cliffs [change]
- Nanga Parbat, Pakistan Occupied Kashmir, 4600 m
- Great Trango Towers, Baltoro Muztagh, Northern Areas, Pakistan, 1340 m
- Uli Biaho Towers, Baltoro Glacier, Northern Areas, Pakistan
- Baintha Brakk (The Ogre), Panmah Muztagh, Northern Areas, Pakistan
- The Latok Group, Panmah Muztagh, Northern Areas, Pakistan
- Various cliffs in the Ak-Su Valley of Kyrgyzstan cliffs are high and steep.
- Masada, Israel, Dead Sea
- Hornelen, Norway, 860 m above Frøysjøen
- Cape Enniberg, Faroe Islands, 750 m above North Atlantic
- Croaghaun, Achill Island, Ireland, 668 m above Atlantic Ocean
- Vixía Herbeira, Northern Galicia, Spain, 621 m above Atlantic Ocean
- Preikestolen, Norway, 604 m above Lysefjorden
- Slieve League, Ireland, 601 m above Atlantic Ocean
- Cabo Girão, Madeira, 589 m above Atlantic Ocean
- Conachair, St Kilda, Scotland 427 m above Atlantic Ocean
- Cap Canaille, France, 416 m above Mediterranean Sea is the highest sea cliff in France
- St John's Head (Hoy Orkney Islands Scotland) at 335 m is the most vertical sea cliff in the UK
- Hangman cliffs, Devon, 318 m above Bristol Channel is the highest sea cliff in England
- Dingli Cliffs, Malta, 250 m above Mediterranean Sea
- Cliffs of Moher, Ireland, 217 m above Atlantic Ocean
- Cap de la Nau, Spain, 200 m above Mediterranean Sea
- Beachy Head, England, 162 m above the English Channel
- Snake Island, Romania, 41 m above the Black Sea
- Møns Klint, Denmark, 143 m above Baltic Sea
- White cliffs of Dover, England, 100 m above the Strait of Dover
- Strunjan cliff, Slovenia, 80 m above the Adriatic Sea
- Troll Wall, Norway 1100 m above base
- Mięguszowiecki Szczyt north face rises to 1043 m above Morskie Oko lake level, High Tatras, Poland
- Kjerag, Norway 984 m
- Mały Kieżmarski Szczyt (north face), Tatra Mountains, Slovakia about 900 m denivelation (vertical rise)
- Giewont (north face), Tatra Mountains, Poland, 852 m above Polana Strążyska glade
- Kazalnica Mięguszowiecka, Tatra Mountains, Poland, 576 m above the Czarny Staw pod Rysami
- The six great north faces of the Alps (Cima Grande di Lavaredo, Eiger, Grandes Jorasses, Matterhorn, Petit Dru and Piz Badile)
North America [change]
- Mount Thor, Baffin Island, Canada; 1,370 m (4,500 ft) total; top 480 m (1,600 ft) is overhanging. This is commonly regarded as being the largest purely vertical drop on Earth at 1,250 m (4,100 ft).
- The sheer north face of Polar Sun Spire, in the Sam Ford fjord of Baffin Island, has been reported as exceeding Mount Thor's west face in height.
- Ketil's west face in Tasermiut, Greenland (also known as God's Thumbnail), has been reported as 1,400 – 1,450 m high, but there are arguments.
Other notable cliffs include:
- Mount Asgard, Baffin Island, Canada; vertical drop of about 1,200 m (4,000 ft).
- A variety of other cliffs measured at approximately 1,000 m (3,280 ft) in height can be found along the Sam Ford fjord in Baffin Island, such as Walker Citadel, Kiguti Peak and Great Sail Peak, whilst there are others in Querbitter Fjord, and in Tasermiut, Greenland.
- El Capitan, Yosemite Valley, Sierra Nevada, California, United States; about 900 m (3,000 ft) high
- Northwest Face of Half Dome, near El Capitan; 1,340 m (4,400 ft) total, vertical portion about 610 m (2,000 ft)
- Painted Wall in Black Canyon of the Gunnison National Park, Colorado, United States; 685 m (2,250 ft)
- The west face of Notch Peak in southwestern Utah, United States; a limestone cliff of about 670 m (2,200 ft)
- All faces of Devil's Tower, Wyoming, United States
- Various faces of Shiprock, New Mexico, United States
- The North Face of North Twin Peak, Rocky Mountains, Alberta, Canada
- All walls of the Stawamus Chief, Squamish, British Columbia, Canada
- Calvert Cliffs along the Chesapeake Bay in Maryland
- Mt Siyeh Glacier National Park North Face 4200 ft sheer cliff
South America [change]
- Autana Tepui, Venezuela, stands 1,300 m above the forest floor.
- Auyan Tepui, Venezuela, about 1000 m (location of Angel Falls) (the falls are 979 m, the highest in the world)
- Pared de Gocta, Peru, 771 m
- Fortaleza canyon, Aparados da Serra National Park, Brazil, about 720 m
- Pedra Azul, Pedra Azul State Park, Espirito Santo, Brazil, 540 m
- Pão de Açúcar/Sugar Loaf, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 395 m
- All faces of Cerro Torre, Patagonia, Chile-Argentina
- All faces of Cerro Chalten (Fitz Roy), Patagonia, Argentina-Chile
- Various faces of the Torres del Paine group, Patagonia, Chile
- Kogelberg, Western Cape, South Africa, 1289 m above False Bay, Atlantic Ocean
- Table Mountain, Cape Town, Western Cape, South Africa, 1086 m above Atlantic Ocean
- Twelve Apostles, Cape Town, South Africa. A series of 17 precipitous peaks (all sharp cliff faces) ranging from ca 700 m to 1067 m above the Atlantic Ocean
- Risco de Faneque, Gran Canaria-Canary Islands, Spain, 1027 m above Atlantic Ocean
- Guguy's Cliffs, Gran Canaria-Canary Islands, Spain, 725 m above Atlantic Ocean
- La Mérica, La Gomera-Canary Islands, Spain, 711 m above Atlantic Ocean
- Andén Verde, Gran Canaria-Canary Islands, Spain, 690 m above Atlantic Ocean
- Karbonkelberg, Western Cape, South Africa, 653 m above Hout Bay, Atlantic Ocean
- La Peña's Cliffs, El Hierro-Canary Islands, Spain, 652 m above Atlantic Ocean
- Los Gigantes, Tenerife-Canary Islands, Spain, 637 m above Atlantic Ocean
- Chapman's Peak, Cape Town, South Africa, 596 m above Atlantic Ocean
- Anaga's Cliffs, Tenerife-Canary Islands, Spain, 592 m above Atlantic Ocean
- Risco de Famara, Lanzarote-Canary Islands, Spain, 580 m above Atlantic Ocean
- Buenavista's Cliffs, Tenerife-Canary Islands, Spain, 546 m above Atlantic Ocean
- Cape Hangklip, Western Cape, South Africa, 453.1 m above False Bay, Atlantic Ocean
- Punta Gaviota's Cliff, La Palma-Canary Islands, Spain, 435 m above Atlantic Ocean
- The Sentinel, Western Cape, South Africa, 331 m above Hout Bay, Atlantic Ocean
- Cape Point, Western Cape, South Africa, 249 m above Atlantic Ocean
- Drakensberg Amphitheatre, South Africa 1200 m above base, 5 km long. The Tugela Falls, the world's second tallest waterfall, falls 948 m over the edge of the cliff face.
- Mount Meru, Tanzania Caldera Cliffs, 1500 m
- Klein Winterhoek, Western Cape, South Africa, 1220 m above base
- "Natural world: the solar system: highest cliffs". Guinness World Records. http://www.guinnessworldrecords.com/content_pages/record.asp?recordid=54819. Retrieved 2009-03-30.
- "Polar Sun Spire". SummitPost.Org. http://www.summitpost.org/mountain/rock/152417/polar-sun-spire.html. Retrieved 2008-07-31.
- "Climbing in Tasermiut". bigwall.dk. http://www.bigwall.dk/galleri/klatring/tasermiu/pages-uk/uk05keti.htm. Retrieved 2009-03-30.
- "The American Alpine Journal 1986". http://www.americanalpineclub.org/AAJO/pdfs/1986/175_canada_greenland_aaj1986.pdf. Retrieved 2008-09-02.