A logical fallacy or simply a fallacy is some logical transition that people think can be done, but that really cannot be done. It is like an error in thinking. Aristotle and other philosophers identified several such kinds of fallacies:
The list is based on the Organon by Aristotle and is widely accepted in scientific literature. The terms used are those commonly used in English.
In practice, modern 'Behavioral Cognitive Therapy' contains many of these same abstractions.
- Fallacy of the Accident, also known as a dicto simpliciter ad dictum secundum quid. In this fallacy a general rule is improperly applied to some special situation. Example:
- Grass is green
- This parched plot is green.
- Therefore this parched plot is grass.
- Converse Fallacy of the Accident
- Fallacy of the Irrelevant Conclusion (Ignoratio Elechi): Instead of proving or disproving the fact, the attention is drawn to something irrelevant to the argument:
- Fallacy of Begging the Question
- Fallacy of the Consequent
- Fallacy of the False Cause, also known as Non Sequitur, or Post Hoc Ergo Propter Hoc
- Fallacy of the Many Questions: Many questions are improperly grouped to just represent one question.