Ferdinando I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany
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He was a Cardinal after he became Grand Duke, until he married Christine of Lorraine in 1589. He was succeeded by his eldest son, who reigned as Cosimo II. His wife and daughter-in-law Maria Maddalena of Austria acted as regents for Cosimo II.
- Cosimo II de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany (1590–1621); married Maria Maddalena of Austria and had issue;
- Eleonora de' Medici (1591–1617) died unmarried
- Catherine de' Medici (1593–1629); married Ferdinando Gonzaga, Duke of Mantua, later Governor of Siena;
- Francesco de' Medici (1594–1614) died unmarried;
- Carlo de' Medici (1595–1666) died unmarried;
- Filippino de' Medici (1598–1602) died unmarried;
- Lorenzo de' Medici (1599–1648) died unmarried;
- Maria Maddalena de' Medici (1600–1633) died unmarried;
- Claudia de' Medici (1604–1648); married (1) Federico della Rovere and had issue; (2) Leopold V, Archduke of Austria and had issue.