François Duvalier (14 April 1907 - 21 April 1971), known as "Papa Doc", was the President (dictator) and Head of State of Haiti from 1957 until his death. He was excommunicated from the Catholic Church. It is thought that he had diabetes. His remains are missing, and his cause of death is unknown.[source?] He was born and died at Port-au-Prince, Haiti. He was called the Ruthless "President for Life" of Haiti. His wife was Simone Duvalier, and his son, Jean-Claude Duvalier succeeded him as President.
- "François Duvalier Biography". notablebiographies.com. http://www.notablebiographies.com/Du-Fi/Duvalier-Fran-ois.html. Retrieved 4 January 2011.