Fulk, King of Jerusalem

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Fulk V of Anjou, from a 13th century Illuminated manuscript.

Fulk V (1092–1143), called "le Jeune" (the younger), was a French nobleman who was the Count of Anjou from 1109 to 1129. He was the Count of Maine (jure uxoris) 1110–1129. Fulk was a crusader, Knight Templar and was the King of Jerusalem (jure uxoris) from 1131 to his death.

Early Career[change | change source]

Fulk le Jeune, born in 1092, was the younger son of Fulk IV le Réchin and his fifth wife Bertrade de Montfort.[1] She was the daughter of Simon de Montfort, Count de Montfort l'Amaury.[2] As an infant he was probably taken with his mother to be raised at the French court.[a] He was at the French court in 1106 when the news arrived of his half-brother, Geoffrey IV, Count of Anjou's death. King Philip I then made his step-son, Fulk V, the Count of Anjou.[4] The French king then made Duke William of Aquitaine Fulk's guardian as Fulk was not yet old enough to rule on his own. Instead the duke put Fulk in prison.[4] Nothing the king or queen threatened could get Duke William to release the boy. After a year his father, Fulk le Réchin finally paid the duke a ransom of several towns on the border with Poitou.[4]. Fulk le Réchin died two years later on April 14, 1109. Fulk V "je June" succeeded his father as the count of Anjou.[4]

Count of Anjou and Maine[change | change source]

In 1110 Fulk V le Jeune married Eremburge of Maine.[4] When her father, Count Elias, died a few months later, Fulk V became the Count of Maine in right of his wife.[4] But this brought him into immediate conflict with King Henry I of England who also claimed Maine.[4] For a time Fulk was the first Angevin count to directly rule Maine.[5] In 1113 Henry I arranged to meet with Fulk V at Alençon.[6] There they arranged a peace agreement. To seal the agreement they made a marriage alliance. Fulk's infant daughter Matilda was promised in marriage to Henry's nine year old son, William Adelin.[6] Fulk V remained the count of Maine but he swore fealty to King Henry I as his overlord.[6] Without his Angevin ally Fulk, King Louis VI of France was forced to make peace with King Henry I.[6] King Louis confirmed the lordship (overlordship) of Maine to Henry I.[7] Henry then attacked the lands of Robert de Bellême; joined by Fulk V. Bellême was defeated and Henry I returned to England.[8] Fulk V returned to Anjou to deal with a revolt in Angers.[9]

In 1116 Louis IV raided into Normandy again.[10] Louis had supported Henry I's nephew, William Clito as the Duke of Normandy. By 1117 King Louis IV of France, Count Baldwin VII of Flanders and Fulk V of Anjou were all supporting William Clito against Henry I of England.[10] The next summer Henry I returned to Normandy and the war began. Fulk V defeated Henry I at La Motte-Gautier on the border of Maine.[10] In October of 1118 Fulk V again defeated Henry I at Alençon.[10] Finally, after a series of defeats Henry I made peace with Fulk V. They sealed their truce by allowing the marriage of Fulk's daughter Matilda with Henry's son William William Adelin.[10] Fulk V gave Maine as a dowry for his daughter Matilda. In 1120 Fulk V then made a pilgrimage to the Holy Land.[5] He spent a year at Jerusalem.[11] According to Orderic Vitalis he joined the Knights Templar. When he returned to Anjou Fulk left 100 knights behind for a year to help defend the Kingdom. He continued to pay the Templars a substantial yearly donation for the rest of his life.[12]

Crusader and Muslim warriors in battle.

Fulk le Jeune returned to Anjou in early 1121. He learned that William Adelin, his new son-in-law William had drowned in the shipwreck of the White Ship.[13] The treaty with Anjou then died with Henry's son.[13] Fulk's daughter Matilda was safe; she had not been on the White ship. Fulk demanded her return to Anjou.[14] But Henry delayed her return and kept part of her dowry. By 1122 she was back in Anjou.[14] Fulk broke off all relations with Henry and made another marriage alliance with Henry's nephew and enemy, William Clito. William was to marry Fulk's daughter Sibyl.[14] He again gave his new son-in-law the lordship of Maine as her dowry.[15] As Henry dealt with his rebel Norman barons one by one, by 1124 Fulk V was William Clito's only supporter. Henry now did everything he could to get the pope to annul the marriage between William Clito and Sibyl.[16] On 26 August 1124 Pope Calixtus II annulled the marriage of William Clito and Sibyl because they were too closely related.[b][16]

In 1126 Fulk le Jeune's wife, Eremburge, Countess of Maine and Anjou died.[1] In Germany,Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor died. His wife the Empress Matilda was Henry I of England's only living legitimate child. Henry called her back to England.[19] Henry made all his English and Norman barons swear that in case Henry had no sons they would make Matilda the Queen of England succeeding him.[19] In 1127 Henry made peace again with Fulk le Jeune and offered a new marriage alliance. Fulk's son, Geoffrey was to wed the Empress Matilda and Maine would be settled on the new couple.[19] In June of 1128, Henry I came to Rouen and there knighted Geoffrey of Anjou.[20] A week later the couple was married.[20]

About this same time Fulk le Jeune had received representatives of King Baldwin II of Jerusalem.[21] king Baldwin II had no sons but he had four daughters. He offered the hand of his oldest daughter, Melisende, to Fulk le June along with the crown of the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem.[21] Fulk was well known in Jerusalem from his earlier visit and the money he sent the Knights Templar every year.[21] In Jerusalem Melisende became officially the heiress of the kingdom. She would rule as Queen at her father's death.[22] After the wedding of his son Geoffrey, Fulk le Jeune and his children all met at the Fontevraud Abbey where his daughter Matilda became a nun.[c][24] They said their farewells and Fulk le Jeune set off for Jerusalem.[24] Geoffrey V, nicknamed "la Bel" was to rule Anjou in his father's absence.

In the spring of 1129 Fulk le Jeune arrived in Jerusalem.[25] He and Melisende were married. As a part of their marriage contract at the death of her father, King Baldwin II, Fulk and Melisende were to rule Jerusalem together.[26] As a dowry Fulk and Melisende received the two most valuable ports in the kingdom, Tyre and Acre.[25] Fulk brought a large number of knights and foot soldiers with him from Anjou.[25]

King of Jerusalem[change | change source]

The Coronation of King Fulk and Queen Melisende of Jerusalem. 13th century.

In 1131, on the death of Baldwin II of Jerusalem, Fulk was crowned king.[5] Melisende was crowned Queen at the same time. But from the beginning of their rule Fulk attempted to ruled alone.[26] He tried to keep Melisende from having an active part in ruling Jerusalem.[26] Fulk began replacing governors and counsellors with his own followers from Anjou.[27] Many had served several of the Kings of Jerusalem. Their loss of favor with the new king caused a great deal of resentment.[27] Between 1133 and 1134 a revolt started among the nobility of Jerusalem led by count Count Hugh II of Jaffa.[28] Fulk called on Count Hugh to appear before him but Hugh refused.[28] Fulk then took away Hugh's fief of Jaffa. Hugh was angry and joined with their enemies the Fatimid Egyptians.[28] But his followers left Hugh and came back to King Fulk.[28] Hugh next submitted to King Fulk and was exiled for three years.[28] The revolt was broken. During the revolt however, the Seljuks of Damascus were able to take back Banyas.[29] But Fulk realized he could not exclude Melisende and from then on allowed her to share in ruling the kingdom.[28]

In 1132 Pons, Count of Tripoli was defeated by Seljuks and was under siege at the castle of Montferrand (Baarin). Fulk rushed to his aid and forced the enemy to retreat.[30] In 1134 Fulk raided into Hauran (in present day Syria and Jordan). But he was forced to retreat when Seljuks countered by attacking Jerusalem. In September the two sides agreed to a peace.[31]

In 1136 Fulk began building castles around the fortress city of Ascalon.[32] This was to prevent raids on Jerusalem by the Egyptian Fatimids. He also built a castle at Beth Gibelin and placed it in the care of the Knights Hospitaller.[32] Also in 1136 the Grand Master (leader) of the Knights Templar, Hugues de Payens, died. Fulk used his influence with the Templars to get one of his own Angevins, Robert of Craon, elected Grand Master.[33] In 1137 Fulk was besieged at Montferrand. The Patriarch of Jerusalem marched an army to relieve the fortress.[32] But Fulk did not know his own army was coming to his rescue.[34] The Seljuks knew of this and quickly offered Fulk favorable terms.[34] King Fulk surrendered the castle in exchange for his own freedom.[5]

In 1137 while the Christians and Muslims were engaged with each other a new force was entering the area.[34] John, the Byzantine Emperor was moving against Antioch.[35] He decided to take back the city and began attacking the walls. Too powerful for Fulk to deal with he decided to surrender Antioch to the Emperor.[36] The Prince of Antioch, Raymond of Poitiers, had to surrender to the Emperor in person. Then, with the Byzantine flag above the city and Raymond still the Prince, the Emperor returned to Constantinople.[36] Fulk, the King of Jerusalem, lost his control over Antioch.[36]

On 10 November 1143 Fulk died in a hunting accident falling from his horse.[5] After Fulk's death Melisende took control of Jerusalem.[37] She ruled as queen and as regent for their oldest son Baldwin III.[37]

Family[change | change source]

In 1110, Fulk married Ermengarde of Maine ( 1126), the daughter of Elias I of Maine.[1] Together they had:


His second wife was Melisende, Queen of Jerusalem, the daughter of King Baldwin II of Jerusalem and Morphia of Melitene.[1] Together they had:

Notes[change | change source]

  1. Fulk le Réchin's marriage to Bertrade de Montfort was part of a negotiation in exchange for the county of Maine. But after the birth of their only child she became the wife and queen of king Philip I of France (without ending the marriage to Fulk).[3]
  2. Henry's canonists had done their research well and discovered the couple were related to each other.[17] William Clito and Sibyl of Anjou were related in the fifth degree of consanguinity (they were fourth cousins).[16] During this period in time canon law prohibited any marriage within seven degrees of consanguinity (sixth cousins).[18] But the marriage of Henry's son, William Adelin and Matilda of Anjou had been in the same prohibited degree of consanguinity.[19]
  3. "This princess took the veil at Fontevraud in 1128, became abbess of that monastery in 1150, and died in 1154.[23] Taking the veil meant becoming a nun. Henry I, her former father-in-law visited her at Fontevraud from time to time.

References[change | change source]

  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 Detlev Schwennicke, Europäische Stammtafeln: Stammtafeln zur Geschichte der Europäischen Staaten, Neue Folge, Band II (Marburg, Germany: J. A., Stargardt, 1984) Tafel 82
  2. Detlev Schwennicke, Europäische Stammtafeln: Stammtafeln zur Geschichte der Europäischen Staaten, Neue Folge, Band II (Marburg, Germany: J. A., Stargardt, 1984) Tafel 11
  3. C. Warren Hollister, Henry I (New Haven; London: Yale University Press, 2003), p. 226
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 Kate Norgate, England Under the Angevin Kings (London; New York: Macmillan & Co., 1887), p. 229
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 Jim Bradbury, The Routledge Companion to Medieval Warfare (London; New York: Routledge, 2004), p. 38
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 C. Warren Hollister, Henry I (New Haven; London: Yale University Press, 2003), p. 231
  7. Ordericus Vitalis, The Ecclesiastical History of England and Normandy, trans. Thomas Forester, Vol. 3 (London: Henry G. Bohn, 1856), p. 444
  8. Ordericus Vitalis, The Ecclesiastical History of England and Normandy, trans. Thomas Forester, Vol. 3 (London: Henry G. Bohn, 1856), p. 445
  9. Kate Norgate, England Under the Angevin Kings (London; New York: Macmillan & Co., 1887), p. 234
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 Kate Norgate, England Under the Angevin Kings (London; New York: Macmillan & Co., 1887), p. 235
  11. Peter Lock, The Routledge Companion to the Crusades (London; New York: Routledge, 2006), p. 146
  12. Ordericus Vitalis, The Ecclesiastical History of England and Normandy, trans. Thomas Forester, Vol. 4 (London: Henry G. Bohn, 1856), p. 44
  13. 13.0 13.1 C. Warren Hollister, Henry I (New Haven; London: Yale University Press, 2003), p. 277
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 Kate Norgate, England Under the Angevin Kings (London; New York: Macmillan & Co., 1887), p. 240
  15. Daniel Power, The Norman Frontier in the Twelfth and Early Thirteenth Centuries (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2004), p. 379
  16. 16.0 16.1 16.2 Henry I and the Anglo-Norman World; Studies in memory of C. Warren Hollister, eds: Donald F. Fleming; Janet M. Pope (Woodbridge, Boydell Press, 2007), pp. 304-05
  17. Edward Augustus Freeman, The History of the Norman Conquest of England, Its Causes and Its Results (Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1876), p. 199 & n. 1
  18. Constance B. Bouchard, 'Consanguinity and Noble Marriages in the Tenth and Eleventh Centuries', Speculum, Vol. 56, No. 2 (Apr., 1981), pp. 269-70
  19. 19.0 19.1 19.2 19.3 Kate Norgate, England Under the Angevin Kings (London; New York: Macmillan & Co., 1887), p. 242
  20. 20.0 20.1 C. Warren Hollister, Henry I (New Haven; London: Yale University Press, 2003), pp. 323-24
  21. 21.0 21.1 21.2 Kate Norgate, England Under the Angevin Kings (London; New York: Macmillan & Co., 1887), p. 246
  22. Hans Eberhard Mayer, 'The Succession to Baldwin II of Jerusalem: English Impact on the East', Dumbarton Oaks Papers, Vol. 39 (1985), p. 143
  23. Ordericus Vitalis, The Ecclesiastical History of England and Normandy, trans. Thomas Forester, Vol. 4 (London: Henry G. Bohn, 1856), p. 54 note 3
  24. 24.0 24.1 Kate Norgate, England Under the Angevin Kings (London; New York: Macmillan & Co., 1887), p. 248
  25. 25.0 25.1 25.2 Malcolm Barber, The Crusader States (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2012), p. 146
  26. 26.0 26.1 26.2 Hans Eberhard Mayer, 'Angevins versus Normans: The New Men of King Fulk of Jerusalem', Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, Vol. 133, No. 1 (Mar., 1989), p. 1
  27. 27.0 27.1 Ordericus Vitalis, The Ecclesiastical History of England and Normandy, trans. Thomas Forester, Vol. 4 (London: Henry G. Bohn, 1856), pp. 106-07
  28. 28.0 28.1 28.2 28.3 28.4 28.5 Hans Eberhard Mayer, 'Angevins versus Normans: The New Men of King Fulk of Jerusalem', Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, Vol. 133, No. 1 (Mar., 1989), p. 2
  29. William Barron Stevenson, The crusaders in the East (Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University press, 1907), p. 132
  30. William Barron Stevenson, The crusaders in the East (Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University press, 1907), pp. 131-32
  31. William Barron Stevenson, The crusaders in the East (Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University press, 1907), pp. 132-33
  32. 32.0 32.1 32.2 Hans Eberhard Mayer, 'Angevins versus Normans: The New Men of King Fulk of Jerusalem', Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, Vol. 133, No. 1 (Mar., 1989), p. 5
  33. Malcolm Barber, The New Knighthood; A History of the Order of the Temple (Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998), p. 36
  34. 34.0 34.1 34.2 William Barron Stevenson, The crusaders in the East (Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University press, 1907), p. 138
  35. John Julius Norwich, Byzantium; The Decline and Fall (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2000), p. 76
  36. 36.0 36.1 36.2 John Julius Norwich, Byzantium; The Decline and Fall (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2000), pp. 77-78
  37. 37.0 37.1 Peter W. Edbury; John Gordon Rowe, William of Tyre: Historian of the Latin East (Cambridge; New York: University of Cambridge Press, 1990), p. 80