German Empire

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German Empire
Deutsches Kaiserreich

1871–1918
Flag Coat of arms
Motto
Gott mit Uns
(German: "God with us”)
Anthem
Heil dir im Siegerkranz (unofficial)
Territory of the German Empire in 1914, prior to World War I
Capital Berlin
Language(s) German
Polish (Posen, Upper Silesia, Masuria)
French (Lothringen region of Elsass-Lothringen)
Government Constitutional monarchy
Emperor
 - 1871-1888 Wilhelm I
 - 1888-1888 Friedrich
 - 1888-1918 Wilhelm II
Chancellor
 - 1871-1890 Otto von Bismarck
 - 3 Oct-9 Nov 1918 Max von Baden
History
 - Victory in the Franco-Prussian War January 18, 1871
 - Proclamation of the Weimar Republic November 9, 1918
Area
 - 1910 540,766 km2 (208,791 sq mi)
Population
 - 1871 est. 41,058,792 
 - 1890 est. 49,428,470 
 - 1910 est. 64,925,993 
     Density 120.1 /km2  (311 /sq mi)
Currency Goldmark

The German Empire ("Deutsches Reich" or "Deutsches Kaiserreich" in the German language) is the name for a group of German countries from January 18, 1871 to November 9, 1918. This is from the day Wilhelm I of Prussia was made German Emperor to when the third Emperor Wilhelm II was removed from power at the end of the First World War. It was once called the "Second Reich".

The name of Germany was "Deutsches Reich" until 1945. "Reich" can mean many things, empire, kingdom, state, "richness" or "wealth".

At different times, there were three groups of smaller countries, each group was later called a "Reich" by some Germans. The first was the Holy Roman Empire. The second was the German Empire. The third was the Third Reich.

The words "Second Reich" were used for the German Empire by Arthur Moeller van den Bruck, a nationalist writer in the 1920s. He was trying to make a link with the earlier Holy Roman Empire which had once been very strong. Germany had lost a war and was in great difficulties and he wanted to start a "Third Reich" to unite the country. These words were later used by the Nazis to make themselves appear stronger.

States in the Empire[change | edit source]

State Capital
Kingdoms (Königreiche)
Flag of Prussia 1892-1918.svg Prussia (Preußen) Berlin
Flag of Bavaria (striped).svg Bavaria (Bayern) Munich
Flagge Königreich Sachsen (1815-1918).svg Saxony (Sachsen) Dresden
Flagge Königreich Württemberg.svg Württemberg Stuttgart
Grand duchies (Großherzogtümer)
Flagge Großherzogtum Baden (1871-1891).svg Baden Karlsruhe
Flagge Großherzogtum Hessen ohne Wappen.svg Hesse (Hessen) Darmstadt
Flagge Großherzogtümer Mecklenburg.svg Mecklenburg-Schwerin Schwerin
Flagge Großherzogtümer Mecklenburg.svg Mecklenburg-Strelitz Neustrelitz
Civil flag of Oldenburg.svg Oldenburg Oldenburg
Flagge Großherzogtum Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach (1813-1897).svg Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach (Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach) Weimar
Duchies (Herzogtümer)
Flagge Herzogtum Anhalt.svg Anhalt Dessau
Flagge Herzogtum Braunschweig.svg Brunswick (Braunschweig) Braunschweig
Flagge Herzogtum Sachsen-Coburg-Gotha (1826-1911).svg Saxe-Altenburg (Sachsen-Altenburg) Altenburg
Flagge Herzogtum Sachsen-Coburg-Gotha (1911-1920).svg Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha) Coburg
Flagge Herzogtum Sachsen-Coburg-Gotha (1826-1911).svg Saxe-Meiningen (Sachsen-Meiningen) Meiningen
Principalities (Fürstentümer)
Flagge Fürstentum Lippe.svg Lippe Detmold
Flagge Fürstentum Reuß jüngere Linie.svg Reuss, junior line Gera
Flagge Fürstentum Reuß ältere Linie.svg Reuss, senior line Greiz
Flagge Fürstentum Schaumburg-Lippe.svg Schaumburg-Lippe Bückeburg
Flagge Fürstentümer Schwarzburg.svg Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt Rudolstadt
Flagge Fürstentümer Schwarzburg.svg Schwarzburg-Sondershausen Sondershausen
Flag of Germany (3-2 aspect ratio).svg Waldeck-Pyrmont Arolsen
Free Hanseatic cities (Freie Hansestädte)
Flag of Bremen.svg Bremen
Flag of Hamburg.svg Hamburg
Flag of the Free City of Lübeck.svg Lübeck
Imperial territory (Reichsland)
Flag of the German Empire.svg Alsace-Lorraine (Elsaß-Lothringen) Straßburg


Other pages[change | edit source]