Giuseppe Mazzini

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Photograph of Mazzini by Domenico Lama

Giuseppe Mazzini (1805 – 1872), known as the soul of Italy, as an Italian patriot, philosopher, Freemason and politician. His efforts helped bring about the modern Italian state[2] in place of the several separate states, many dominated by foreign powers, that existed until the 19th century. He also helped define the modern European movement for popular democracy in a republican state.

Criticisms[change | change source]

Karl Marx, on an interview by R. Landor in 1871, said that Mazzini's ideas represents "nothing better than the old idea of a middle-class republic." Marx believed, especially after the Revolutions of 1848, that this middle class point of view had become reactionary and the proletariat had nothing to do with it.

Other websites[change | change source]