Globalization is the way that local or national ways of doing things become global, that is, done together around the world. It is about economics or trade, technology, politics, and culture. People feel differently about globalization: some think it helps everyone while others think it hurts some people.
Definition[change | edit source]
It is the system of interaction among countries of the world in order to develop the global economy. In the late 20th century, many countries agreed to lower tariffs, or taxes on goods that are imported from other countries. The Internet and other communication technologies also made it easy for people to buy and sell products to people around the world.
Herman E. Daly has said that there is an important difference between internationalization and globalization. Internationalization is about nations working together for the same goals. These are things like treaties, alliances, and other international agreements. Globalization is about making national borders less important for those who want to buy or sell things around the world. He says that globalization is making "national economies into one global economy" because many depend on people from other countries.
Criticism[change | edit source]
Some people, like Noam Chomsky, do not like globalization because they feel it only helps rich people get richer by making poor people poorer. Offshore outsourcing, when companies hire workers in cheaper countries, is often a part of globalization. This sometimes means that some people lose their jobs. Joseph Stiglitz has said that international groups like the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) have made it harder for poorer nations to get richer. Critics of globalization also feel that it leads to global brands, like Coca-Cola and McDonald's, taking over smaller, local shops and businesses. Jean Baudrillard believes that globalization hurts local cultures and is the cause of most terrorism. He also believes that most supporters of globalization just want to stay in power.
Support[change | edit source]
Others, like Thomas Friedman, believe that globalization can bring people together and make everyone richer without getting rid of local cultures. People who support globalization also believe that it makes war less likely because it is bad for business. Friedman believed that no two nations with a McDonald's would ever go to war with each other. After NATO bombed Serbia, he changed and said that no two nations who make products for Dell Computers would ever go to war.
Many believe that globalization helps out poorer nations by bringing them business. A report by the World Bank said that poverty in India and Indonesia was cut in half because of globalization. The report also said that people in poorer nations are living longer and better because they were making more money.
Other pages[change | edit source]
References[change | edit source]
- Sheila L. Croucher. Globalization and Belonging: The Politics of Identity a Changing World. Rowman & Littlefield. (2004). p.10
- Daly, Herman (1999). "Globalization versus Internationalization - some implications". Ecological Economics. Elsevier. pp. 31–37. http://www.uvm.edu/%7Ejdericks/EEtheory/Daly_on_Globalization.pdf.
- Baudrillard, Jean (2002). "The Violence of the Global". Power Inferno. Galilee. pp. 63-83. http://www.egs.edu/faculty/baudrillard/baudrillard-the-violence-of-the-global.html./
- The World is Flat (ISBN 1-59397-668-2), Thomas L. Friedman, pg 421
- The World Bank (08-2000). "Poverty in an Age of Globalization". http://www1.worldbank.org/economicpolicy/globalization/documents/povertyglobalization.pdf.
More Reading[change | edit source]
- Peter Berger, Four Faces of Global Culture (The National Interest, Fall 1997).
- Friedman, Thomas L. (2005). The World Is Flat. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. ISBN 0-374-29288-4.
- Kitching, Gavin (2001). Seeking Social Justice through Globalization. Escaping a Nationalist Perspective. Penn State Press. ISBN 0-271-02162-4. http://www.gavinkitching.com/africa_3.htm.
- Mander, Jerry; Edward Goldsmith (1996). The case against the global economy : and for a turn toward the local. San Francisco: Sierra Club Books. ISBN 0-87156-865-9.
- Steger, Manfred (2003). Globalization: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-280359-X.
- Stiglitz, Joseph E. (2002). Globalization and Its Discontents. New York: W.W. Norton. ISBN 0-393-32439-7.
- Wolf, Martin (2004). Why Globalization Works. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0300102529.