Grade retention is when a child repeats a grade i.e. first grade, second grade, etc. It may also occur in older children in middle school or high school. Some children have disabilities and must repeat a grade due to the school's fault for not meeting their needs in the first place. Either way, grade retention can be emotionally damaging on a child's self-esteem.
Other websites [change]
- Taking Responsibility for Ending Social Promotion: A Guide for Educators and State and Local Leaders, U.S. Department of Education, May 1999
- Retention and Social Promotion: Research and Implications for Policy. ERIC Digest Number 161, December 2000.
- Beyond Social Promotion and Retention—Five Strategies to Help Students Succeed, North Central Regional Educational Laboratory, 2001
- Position Statement on Student Grade Retention and Social Promotion, National Association of School Psychologists, April 12, 2003
- Wrightslaw articles on retention and social promotion
- Social Promotion vs. Mastery Learning: What to do with Students Who Don't Meet Standards