Green River Formation
The Green River Formation is a 48 million year old Eocene rock formation. It records sediment from a group of intermountain lakes. Its fine fossils make this a lagerstätte, a place of exceptional preservation.
The sediments are deposited in very fine layers, in pairs. A dark layer from the growing season, and a light-hue inorganic layer in winter.
Each pair of layers is called a varve and represents one year. The sediments of the Green River Formation present a continuous record of six million years. The mean thickness of a varve here is 0.18 mm, with a minimum thickness of 0.014 mm and maximum of 9.8 mm.
The sedimentary layers were formed in a large area named after the present-day Green River, a tributary of the Colorado River. The formation is in three separate basins around the Uinta Mountains of northeastern Utah:
- an area in northwestern Colorado east of the Uintas
- a larger area in the southwest corner of Wyoming just north of the Uintas known as Lake Gosiute
- another area, in Fossil Butte National Monument, Lincoln County, Wyoming is Fossil Lake. It has exceptionally well preserved fish fossils.
- the largest area, in northeastern Utah and western Colorado south of the Uintas, known as Lake Uinta
Conditions at the time[change | edit source]
Climate[change | edit source]
The Green River fossils show a transition between the moist early Eocene climate and the slightly drier mid-Eocene. The climate was moist and mild enough to support crocodiles, which do not tolerate frost, and the lakes were surrounded by sycamore forests. As the lake configurations shifted, each Green River location is distinct in character and time. The lake system formed over underlying river deltas and shifted in the flat landscape with slight tectonic movements
Oil shale[change | edit source]
The Green River Formation contains the largest oil shale deposits in the world. The 213 billion tons of oil shale contain an estimated 2.38 × 10¹¹ m³ (1.5 trillion US barrels) of shale oil. This is a tribute to the high volume of organic material that was buried. The source of the organic material was probably cyanobacteria, which thrive in warm alkaline lake conditions.
Fossils[change | edit source]
The lagerstätten formed in anoxic conditions in the fine carbonate muds that formed in the lakebeds. Lack of oxygen slowed bacterial decomposition and kept scavengers away. Leaves of palms, ferns and sycamores, some showing the insect damage got during their growth, were covered with fine-grained sediment and preserved. Insects were preserved whole, even delicate wing membranes and spider spinnerets.
Reference[change | edit source]
- Bradley W.H. The varves and climate of the Green River epoch: U.S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 158, pp 87–110, 1929.
- USGS Scientific Investigations Report 2005–5294, Geology and resources of some World oil-shale deposits