|Herbert Clark Hoover|
|31st President of the United States|
March 4, 1929 – March 3, 1933
|Vice President||Charles Curtis|
|Preceded by||Calvin Coolidge|
|Succeeded by||Franklin D. Roosevelt|
|Born||August 10, 1874
West Branch, IA
|Died||October 20, 1964
New York City, New York
|Spouse(s)||Lou Henry Hoover|
Herbert Clark Hoover (August 10, 1874 – October 20, 1964), the 31st president of the United States from 1929–1933. He was a world-famous mining engineer and humanitarian administrator. As a United States Commerce Secretary in the 1920s under Presidents Warren G. Harding and Calvin Coolidge, he promoted economic modernization. In the presidential election of 1928, Hoover easily won the Republican nomination. The nation was prosperous and optimistic, leading to a landslide for Hoover over the Democrat Al Smith.
Presidency[change | edit source]
A few months after the United States had been at its strongest economy in all of its history, the stock market crashed and the Great Depression was beginning. Hoover appeared on the first television broadcast in United States' history.
Unlike Andrew Mellon and Calvin Coolidge who believed that the federal government should keep its hands off the economy, Herbert Hoover believed that some action from the federal government is necessary.
While he opposed a welfare state which would give money to people for doing nothing, he wanted to create jobs through several government programs, including the construction of a huge dam which would be later named Hoover Dam.
The federal government received less money in tax revenues because of the bad economy, and the government was spending more money than it was taking in, so Hoover tried to increase the government's revenue to balance the budget. He signed the Revenue Act of 1932 which was a large tax increase. He signed the largest tariff (tax on countries which trade with the United States) increase in American history which worsened the Great Depression, even though 1000 economists warned him not to sign that.
Hoover denied giving promised retirement money to poor World War 1 veterans (called the Bonus Army) earlier than what was agreed to, so they went on strike. Hoover ordered the United States army to force them to leave. It resulted in a bloody conflict which hurt Hoover's reputation.
Hoover was uncharismatic and did not relate to the people well, which made many people consider him as mean-spirited.
Hoover supported the very unpopular prohibition of alcohol and did not want to make alcohol legal.
Due to his failure to fix the Great Depression, he lost the 1932 election to Franklin Roosevelt.
References[change | edit source]
- "FIRST PUBLIC DEMONSTRATION OF INTER-CITY TELEVISION BROADCASTING". Science Service.si.ed. http://scienceservice.si.edu/pages/097004.htm. Retrieved November 4, 2013.
Other websites[change | edit source]
- Hoover's White House biography
- Claus Bernet: Herbert Hoover, in: BBKL, 30, 2009, 644-653: http://www.bautz.de/bbkl/h/hoover_h_c.shtml