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The hydrosphere describes the combined mass of water found on, under, and over the surface of a planet. The total mass of the Earth’s hydrosphere is about 1.4 × 1024 grams, which is about 0.023% of the Earth’s total mass. Around 2 × 1019 grams of this is the Earth’s atmosphere. In addition, 71% of the Earth’s surface, an area of 361 million square kilometers, is covered by ocean.