- See also:Calvin cycle
In the light-dependent reaction, light energy from the sun is used to split water (photolysis) which has been sucked in by plants by transpiration. Water, when broken, makes oxygen, hydrogen, and electrons. These electrons move through structures in chloroplasts and by chemiosmosis, make ATP.
The hydrogen is converted to NADPH which is then used in the light-independent reactions. Oxygen diffuses out of the plant as a waste product of photosynthesis. This all happens in the grana of chloroplasts.
The movement of electrons [change]
- Light hits the chloroplast, it absorbs light and traps it.
- Chlorophyll channels the light down to a reaction centre
- An electron at the reaction centre is excited to a higher energy level, and is received by an electron acceptor. This electron is taken from the splitting of water: (H2O → 1/2O2 + 2H+ + 2e-)
- The electron is passed along a series of electron carriers. It is moving down energy levels and losing energy. This energy causes the pumping of hydrogen from the cytoplasm of chlorophyll into thylakoid spaces inside the grana. The hydrogen diffuses and flows back into the cytoplasm through protein channels. As the hydrogen diffuses down a concentration gradient, ATP is made from ADP and inorganic phosphate.
- Eventually, the electron is used to reduce NADP to NADPH along with hydrogen from photolysis
Colin Flannery was the first to propose the idea that photosynthesis needs light, in 1779. He recognized it was sunlight falling on plants that was required, although Joseph Priestly had noted the production of oxygen without the association with light in 1772. Cornelius Van Niel proposed in 1931 that photosynthesis is a case of general mechanism where a photon of light is used to photo decompose a hydrogen donor and the hydrogen being used to reduce CO2. Then in 1939 Robin Hill showed that isolated chloroplasts would make oxygen, but not fix CO2 showing the light and dark reactions occurred in different places. This led later to the discovery of photosystem 1 and 2.
Other pages [change]
- Ingenhousz, J (1779). Experiments Upon Vegetables. London: Elmsly and Payne. http://books.google.com/books?id=7II5AAAAcAAJ&pg=PR1.
- Priestley, J (1772). Observations on Different Kinds of Air. 62. London: Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc.. pp. 147–264. doi:10.1098/rstl.1772.0021.
- van Niel, C. B. (1931.). "On the morphology and physiology of the purple and green sulfur bacteria". Arch. Microbial 3: 1–114. doi:10.1007/BF00454965.
- Hill, R. (May 1939). "Oxygen Produced by Isolated Chloroplasts". Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences 127 (847): 192–210. doi:10.1098/rspb.1939.0017.