List of elements by symbol

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This is a list of elements by symbol.

Chemical symbol Name Origin of symbol No. Atomic mass Density at 20°C Melting point °C Boiling point °C Year of discovery Discoverer
Ac Actinium 89 227,0278 g/mol 10,07 g/cm3 1047 °C 3197 °C 1899 Debierne
Ag Silver Latin Argentum 47 107,8682 g/mol 10,49 g/cm3 961,9 °C 2212 °C prehistoric unknown
Al Aluminium 13 26,981539 g/mol 2,70 g/cm3 660,5 °C 2467 °C 1825 Oersted
Am Americium 95 243,0614 g/mol 13,67 g/cm3 994 °C 2607 °C 1944 Seaborg
Ar Argon 18 39,948 g/mol 1,66 g/l -189,4 °C -185,9 °C 1894 Ramsay and Rayleigh
As Arsenic 33 74,92159 g/mol 5,72 g/cm3 613 °C 613 (Subl.) °C ca. 1250 Albertus Magnus
At Astatine 85 209,9871 g/mol 302 °C 337 °C 1940 Corson and MacKenzie
Au Gold Latin Aurum 79 196,96654 g/mol 19,32 g/cm3 1064,4 °C 2940 °C prehistoric unknown
B Boron 5 10,811 g/mol 2,46 g/cm3 2300 °C 2550 °C 1808 Davy and Gay-Lussac
Ba Barium 56 137,327 g/mol 3,65 g/cm3 725 °C 1640 °C 1808 Davy
Be Beryllium 4 9,012182 g/mol 1,85 g/cm3 1278 °C 2970 °C 1797 Vauquelin
Bh Bohrium 107 262,1229 g/mol 1976 Oganessian
Bi Bismuth 83 208,98037 g/mol 9,80 g/cm3 271,4 °C 1560 °C 1540 Agricola
Bk Berkelium 97 247,0703 g/mol 13,25 g/cm3 986 °C 1949 Seaborg
Br Bromine 35 79,904 g/mol 3,14 g/cm3 -7,3 °C 58,8 °C 1826 Balard
C Carbon 6 12,011 g/mol 3,51 g/cm3 3550 °C 4827 °C prehistoric unknown
Ca Calcium 20 40,078 g/mol 1,54 g/cm3 839 °C 1487 °C 1808 Davy
Cd Cadmium 48 112,411 g/mol 8,64 g/cm3 321 °C 765 °C 1817 Stromeyer and Hermann
Ce Cerium 58 140,115 g/mol 6,77 g/cm3 798 °C 3257 °C 1803 von Hisinger and Berzelius
Cf Californium 98 251,0796 g/mol 15,1 g/cm3 900 °C 1950 Seaborg
Cl Chlorine 17 35,4527 g/mol 2,95 g/l -34,6 °C -101 °C 1774 Scheele
Cm Curium 96 247,0703 g/mol 13,51 g/cm3 1340 °C 1944 Seaborg
Co Cobalt 27 58,9332 g/mol 8,89 g/cm3 1495 °C 2870 °C 1735 Brandt
Cr Chromium 24 51,9961 g/mol 7,14 g/cm3 1857 °C 2482 °C 1797 Vauquelin
Cs Caesium 55 132,90543 g/mol 1,90 g/cm3 28,4 °C 690 °C 1860 Kirchhoff and Bunsen
Cu Copper Latin Cuprum 29 63,546 g/mol 8,92 g/cm3 1083,5 °C 2595 °C prehistoric unknown
Db Dubnium 105 262,1138 g/mol 1967/70 Flerow oder Ghiorso
Ds Darmstadtium 110 269 g/mol 1994 Society for Heavy Ion Research
Dy Dysprosium 66 162,5 g/mol 8,56 g/cm3 1409 °C 2335 °C 1886 Lecoq de Boisbaudran
Er Erbium 68 167,26 g/mol 9,05 g/cm3 1522 °C 2510 °C 1842 Mosander
Es Einsteinium 99 252,0829 g/mol 860 °C 1952 Seaborg
Eu Europium 63 151,965 g/mol 5,25 g/cm3 822 °C 1597 °C 1901 Demaçay
F Fluorine 9 18,9984032 g/mol 1,58 g/l -219,6 °C -188,1 °C 1886 Moissan
Fe Iron Latin Ferrum 26 55,847 g/mol 7,87 g/cm3 1535 °C 2750 °C prehistoric unknown
Fm Fermium 100 257,0951 g/mol 1952 Seaborg
Fr Francium 87 223,0197 g/mol 27 °C 677 °C 1939 Perey
Ga Gallium 31 69,723 g/mol 5,91 g/cm3 29,8 °C 2403 °C 1875 Lecoq de Boiskaudran
Gd Gadolinium 64 157,25 g/mol 7,89 g/cm3 1311 °C 3233 °C 1880 de Marignac
Ge Germanium 32 72,61 g/mol 5,32 g/cm3 937,4 °C 2830 °C 1886 Winkler
H Hydrogen 1 1,00794 g/mol 0,084 g/l -259,1 °C -252,9 °C 1766 Cavendish
He Helium 2 4,002602 g/mol 0,17 g/l -272,2 °C -268,9 °C 1895 Ramsay and Cleve
Hf Hafnium 72 178,49 g/mol 13,31 g/cm3 2150 °C 5400 °C 1923 Coster and vón Hevesy
Hg Mercury Latin Hydragyrum - quicksilver 80 200,59 g/mol 13,55 g/cm3 -38,9 °C 356,6 °C prehistoric unknown
Ho Holmium 67 164,93032 g/mol 8,78 g/cm3 1470 °C 2720 °C 1878 Soret
Hs Hassium 108 265 g/mol 1984 Society for Heavy Ion Research
I Iodine 53 126,90447 g/mol 4,94 g/cm3 113,5 °C 184,4 °C 1811 Courtois
In Indium 49 114,82 g/mol 7,31 g/cm3 156,2 °C 2080 °C 1863 Reich and Richter
Ir Iridium 77 192,22 g/mol 22,65 g/cm3 2410 °C 4130 °C 1803 Tenant and andere
K Potassium German Kalium 19 39,0983 g/mol 0,86 g/cm3 63,7 °C 774 °C 1807 Davy
Kr Krypton 36 83,8 g/mol 3,48 g/l -156,6 °C -152,3 °C 1898 Ramsay and Travers
La Lanthanum 57 138,9055 g/mol 6,16 g/cm3 920 °C 3454 °C 1839 Mosander
Li Lithium 3 6,941 g/mol 0,53 g/cm3 180,5 °C 1317 °C 1817 Arfvedson
Lr Lawrencium 103 260,1053 g/mol 1961 Ghiorso
Lu Lutetium 71 174,967 g/mol 9,84 g/cm3 1656 °C 3315 °C 1907 Urbain
Md Mendelevium 101 258,0986 g/mol 1955 Seaborg
Mg Magnesium 12 24,305 g/mol 1,74 g/cm3 648,8 °C 1107 °C 1755 Black
Mn Manganese 25 54,93805 g/mol 7,44 g/cm3 1244 °C 2097 °C 1774 Gahn
Mo Molybdenum 42 95,94 g/mol 10,28 g/cm3 2617 °C 5560 °C 1778 Scheele
Mt Meitnerium 109 266 g/mol 1982 Society for Heavy Ion Research
N Nitrogen 7 14,00674 g/mol 1,17 g/l -209,9 °C -195,8 °C 1772 Rutherford
Na Sodium Latin Natrium 11 22,989768 g/mol 0,97 g/cm3 97,8 °C 892 °C 1807 Davy
Nb Niobium 41 92,90638 g/mol 8,58 g/cm3 2468 °C 4927 °C 1801 Hatchet
Nd Neodymium 60 144,24 g/mol 7,00 g/cm3 1010 °C 3127 °C 1895 von Welsbach
Ne Neon 10 20,1797 g/mol 0,84 g/l -248,7 °C -246,1 °C 1898 Ramsay and Travers
Ni Nickel 28 58,69 g/mol 8,91 g/cm3 1453 °C 2732 °C 1751 Cronstedt
No Nobelium 102 259,1009 g/mol 1958 Seaborg
Np Neptunium 93 237,0482 g/mol 20,48 g/cm3 640 °C 3902 °C 1940 McMillan and Abelson
O Oxygen 8 15,9994 g/mol 1,33 g/l -218,4 °C -182,9 °C 1774 Priestley and Scheele
Os Osmium 76 190,2 g/mol 22,61 g/cm3 3045 °C 5027 °C 1803 Tenant
P Phosphorus 15 30,973762 g/mol 1,82 g/cm3 44 (P4) °C 280 (P4) °C 1669 Brandt
Pa Protactinium 91 231,0359 g/mol 15,37 g/cm3 1554 °C 4030 °C 1917 Soddy, Cranston and Hahn
Pb Lead Latin Plumbum 82 207,2 g/mol 11,34 g/cm3 327,5 °C 1740 °C prehistoric unknown
Pd Palladium 46 106,42 g/mol 12,02 g/cm3 1552 °C 3140 °C 1803 Wollaston
Pm Promethium 61 146,9151 g/mol 7,22 g/cm3 1080 °C 2730 °C 1945 Marinsky and Glendenin
Po Polonium 84 208,9824 g/mol 9,20 g/cm3 254 °C 962 °C 1898 Marie and Pierre Curie
Pr Praseodymium 59 140,90765 g/mol 6,48 g/cm3 931 °C 3212 °C 1895 von Welsbach
Pt Platinum 78 195,08 g/mol 21,45 g/cm3 1772 °C 3827 °C 1557 Scaliger
Pu Plutonium 94 244,0642 g/mol 19,74 g/cm3 641 °C 3327 °C 1940 Seaborg
Ra Radium 88 226,0254 g/mol 5,50 g/cm3 700 °C 1140 °C 1898 Marie and Pierre Curie
Rb Rubidium 37 85,4678 g/mol 1,53 g/cm3 39 °C 688 °C 1861 Bunsen and Kirchhoff
Re Rhenium 75 186,207 g/mol 21,03 g/cm3 3180 °C 5627 °C 1925 Noddack, Tacke and Berg
Rf Rutherfordium 104 261,1087 g/mol 1964/69 Flerow oder Ghiorso
Rg Roentgenium 111 272 g/mol 1994 Society for Heavy Ion Research
Rh Rhodium 45 102,9055 g/mol 12,41 g/cm3 1966 °C 3727 °C 1803 Wollaston
Rn Radon 86 222,0176 g/mol 9,23 g/l -71 °C -61,8 °C 1900 Dorn
Ru Ruthenium 44 101,07 g/mol 12,45 g/cm3 2310 °C 3900 °C 1844 Claus
S Sulphur 16 32,066 g/mol 2,06 g/cm3 113 °C 444,7 °C prehistoric unknown
Sb Antimony Latin Stibium 51 121,75 g/mol 6,69 g/cm3 630,7 °C 1750 °C prehistoric unknown
Sc Scandium 21 44,95591 g/mol 2,99 g/cm3 1539 °C 2832 °C 1879 Nilson
Se Selenium 34 78,96 g/mol 4,82 g/cm3 217 °C 685 °C 1817 Berzelius
Sg Seaborgium 106 263,1182 g/mol 1974 Oganessian
Si Silicon 14 28,0855 g/mol 2,33 g/cm3 1410 °C 2355 °C 1824 Berzelius
Sm Samarium 62 150,36 g/mol 7,54 g/cm3 1072 °C 1778 °C 1879 Lecoq de Boisbaudran
Sn Tin Latin Stannum 50 118,71 g/mol 7,29 g/cm3 232 °C 2270 °C prehistoric unknown
Sr Strontium 38 87,62 g/mol 2,63 g/cm3 769 °C 1384 °C 1790 Crawford
Ta Tantalum 73 180,9479 g/mol 16,68 g/cm3 2996 °C 5425 °C 1802 Ekeberg
Tb Terbium 65 158,92534 g/mol 8,25 g/cm3 1360 °C 3041 °C 1843 Mosander
Tc Technetium 43 98,9063 g/mol 11,49 g/cm3 2172 °C 5030 °C 1937 Perrier and Segrè
Te Tellurium 52 127,6 g/mol 6,25 g/cm3 449,6 °C 990 °C 1782 von Reichenstein
Th Thorium 90 232,0381 g/mol 11,72 g/cm3 1750 °C 4787 °C 1829 Berzelius
Ti Titanium 22 47,88 g/mol 4,51 g/cm3 1660 °C 3260 °C 1791 Gregor and Klaproth
Tl Thallium 81 204,3833 g/mol 11,85 g/cm3 303,6 °C 1457 °C 1861 Crookes
Tm Thulium 69 168,93421 g/mol 9,32 g/cm3 1545 °C 1727 °C 1879 Cleve
U Uranium 92 238,0289 g/mol 18,97 g/cm3 1132,4 °C 3818 °C 1789 Klaproth
Uub Ununbium 112 277 g/mol 1996 Society for Heavy Ion Research
Uuh Ununhexium 116
Uuo Ununoctium 118
Uup Ununpentium 115
Uug Ununquadium 114
Uus Ununseptium 117
Uut Ununtrium 113
V Vanadium 23 50,9415 g/mol 6,09 g/cm3 1890 °C 3380 °C 1801 del Rio
W Tungsten German Wolfram 74 183,85 g/mol 19,26 g/cm3 3407 °C 5927 °C 1783 Gebrüder de Elhuyar
Xe Xenon 54 131,29 g/mol 4,49 g/l -111,9 °C -107 °C 1898 Ramsay and Travers
Y Yttrium 39 88,90585 g/mol 4,47 g/cm3 1523 °C 3337 °C 1794 Gadolin
Yb Ytterbium 70 173,04 g/mol 6,97 g/cm3 824 °C 1193 °C 1878 de Marignac
Zn Zinc 30 65,39 g/mol 7,14 g/cm3 419,6 °C 907 °C prehistoric unknown
Zr Zirconium 40 91,224 g/mol 6,51 g/cm3 1852 °C 4377 °C 1789 Klaproth