List of figures in Greek mythology

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Assembly of 20 Greek gods, mostly the Twelve Olympians, as Psyche comes to visit them (Loggia di Psiche, 1518–19, by Raphael and his school)

This is a list of gods, goddesses, people and other figures from Greek mythology. They are sorted into sections below. The immortals include gods (deities), spirits and giants. Being immortal means that they live forever. The mortals include heroes, kings, Amazons and other people. The list does not include creatures.

These figures are described by ancient writers, the oldest of which are Homer and Hesiod.[1][2] The Greeks created images of their deities for many reasons. A temple would house the statue of a god or goddess, or several deities. The statue might be decorated with relief scenes depicting myths. These were also often painted on pottery and minted on coins.

Roman mythology includes many of the same figures, but uses different names: calling Zeus by the name of Jupiter, and Aphrodite by the name of Venus, for example. The Roman names are often better known to English-speaking people than the Greek names.

Immortals[change | edit source]

The main and most important gods were the Twelve Olympians. The home of these gods is at the top of Mount Olympus. There was some variation as to which deities were included in the Twelve.[3] As such, the list below numbers fourteen. It includes all those who are commonly named as one of the Twelve in art and poetry. Dionysus was a later addition; in some descriptions, he replaced Hestia. Hades is not usually included among the Olympians, because his home was the underworld. Some writers, however, such as Plato, named him as one of the Twelve.[4][5]

Deity Description
Cnidus Aphrodite Altemps Inv8619 n2.jpg Aphrodite (Ἀφροδίτη, Aphroditē)

Goddess of love, beauty and desire. She was married to Hephaestus, but she had many lovers, including Ares, Adonis and Anchises. She was depicted as a beautiful woman and often naked. Her symbols include roses and other flowers, the scallop shell, and myrtle wreath. Her sacred animals are doves and sparrows. The Roman version of Aphrodite was Venus.

Image: Cnidian Aphrodite, a Roman work based on an original by Praxiteles

Apollo black bird AM Delphi 8140.jpg Apollo (Ἀπόλλων, Apóllōn)

God of light, healing, music, poetry, plague, prophecy, and more. He is the son of Zeus and Leto, and the twin brother of Artemis. Apollo was associated with the Sun; while Artemis was the Moon. Both use a bow and arrow. In the earliest myths, Apollo fights with his half-brother Hermes. In sculpture, Apollo was depicted as a handsome young man with long hair and a perfect physique. His attributes include the laurel wreath and lyre. He often appears in the company of the Muses. Animals sacred to Apollo include roe deer, swans, cicadas, hawks, ravens, crows, foxes, mice and snakes.

Image: Apollo holding a lyre and pouring a libation, on a drinking cup from a tomb at Delphi

Ares Argentina Montemartini.jpg Ares (Ἄρης, Árēs)

God of war and bloodshed. He was the son of Zeus and Hera. He was depicted as a young man, either naked with a helmet and spear or sword, or as an armed warrior. Ares generally represents the chaos of war in contrast to Athena, who represented strategy and skill. Ares' sacred animals are the vulture, venomous snakes, dogs and boars. The Roman version of Ares is Mars.

Image: Roman marble head of the war god, modelled after a Greek bronze original

0 Artémis (Diane) - Galleria dei Candelabri - Vatican.JPG Artemis (Ἄρτεμις, Ártemis)

Goddess of hunting, wilderness, animals and childbirth. In later times she became associated with the Moon. She is the daughter of Zeus and Leto, and the twin sister of Apollo. She is depicted as a young virgin woman. In art she is often shown holding a hunting bow and arrows. Her attributes include hunting spears, animal furs, deer and other wild animals. Her sacred animals are deer, bears and wild boars. The Roman version of Artemis is Diana.

Image: Artemis reaching for arrow (missing) from her quiver, with a hunting dog

Detail Athena Louvre G104.jpg Athena (Ἀθηνᾶ, Athēnâ)

Goddess of wisdom and skill, warfare and tactics. According to most traditions, she was born from Zeus's head fully formed and wearing armour. She was depicted with a helmet, holding a shield and a spear, and wearing the Aegis over a long dress. Poets describe her as having very bright, keen eyes. She was a special patron of heroes such as Odysseus. She was also the patron of the city Athens (which is named after her). Her symbol is the olive tree. She is often shown beside her sacred animal, the owl. The Roman version of Athena is Minerva.

Image: Athena on a red-figure cup, dating from 500–490 BCE

IAM 4942T - Relief of Demeter.jpg Demeter (Δημήτηρ, Dēmētēr)

Goddess of farming, the harvest and fertility. Demeter is a daughter of Cronus and Rhea. Her brother is Zeus, with whom she had Persephone. She was one of the main deities of the Eleusinian Mysteries. She was depicted as an older woman, often wearing a crown and holding bunches of wheat. Her symbols are the cornucopia, wheat-ears, the winged snake, and the lotus staff. Her sacred animals are pigs and snakes. The Roman version of Demeter is Ceres.

Image: Demeter, sitting down, on a relief from Turkey

Dionysos panther Louvre K240.jpg Dionysus (Διόνυσος, Diónysos)

God of wine, parties and festivals, madness and ecstasy. He was depicted in art as either an older man with a beard or a pretty young man with long hair. His attributes include the thyrsus (a pinecone-tipped staff), drinking cup, grape vine, and a crown of ivy. He is often shown with his thiasos, a group of followers that includes satyrs, maenads, and his teacher Silenus. The consort of Dionysus was Ariadne. Animals sacred to him include dolphins, snakes and donkeys. Dionysus was a later addition to the Olympians; in some descriptions, he replaced Hestia. "Bacchus" was another name for him in Greek, and this was used by the Romans for their version of the god.

Image: Dionysus sitting on a leopard

Persephone Hades BM Vase E82.jpg Hades (ᾍδης, Hádēs)

King of the underworld and god of the dead. His consort is Persephone. His attributes are the cornucopia, key, sceptre, and the three-headed dog Cerberus. The owl was sacred to him. He was one of three sons of Cronus and Rhea, and therefore was ruler of one of the three realms of the universe, the underworld. He is not very often included as one of the Olympians, however. In Athenian literature, "Ploutōn" (Πλούτων) was his preferred name, while "Hades" was more common as a name for the underworld. The Romans translated "Ploutōn" as Pluto, the name for their version of Hades.

Image: Hades lying down, holding a giant drinking horn and offering a bowl to Persephone

Hephaistos Thetis at Kylix by the Foundry Painter Antikensammlung Berlin F2294.jpg Hephaestus (Ἥφαιστος, Hḗphaistos)

God of fire, metalworking and crafts. He was the son of Hera by parthenogenesis. He is the smith of the gods and the husband of Aphrodite. He was usually depicted as a bearded man with hammer, tongs and anvil—the tools of a smith—and sometimes riding a donkey. His sacred animals are the donkey, the guard dog and the crane. One of his many creations was the armour of Achilles. Hephaestus used fire to create things. The Roman version, however, Vulcan, was feared for his destructive power; he was associated with volcanoes.

Image: Thetis receives the armour made for her son Achilles by Hephaestus

Hera Barberini Chiaramonti II.14.jpg Hera (Ἥρα, Hḗra)

Queen of the heavens and goddess of marriage, women and birth. She is the wife of Zeus and daughter of Cronus and Rhea. She was usually depicted as a regal woman, wearing a crown and veil and holding a lotus-tipped staff. Although she was the goddess of marriage, Zeus's many affairs drive her to jealousy and anger. Her sacred animals are the heifer, the peacock and the cuckoo. The Roman version of Hera is Juno.

Image: Bust of Hera wearing a crown

Hermes e seu caduceu.jpg Hermes (Ἑρμῆς, Hērmēs)

God of travel, animal husbandry, writing, trade, and more. He is the son of Zeus and Maia, Hermes is the messenger of the gods. He also leads the souls of the dead into the afterlife. He was depicted either as a handsome and fit young man, or as an older bearded man. He was often shown wearing sandals with small wings on them. His sacred animals are the tortoise, the ram and the hawk. The Roman version of Hermes was Mercury.

Image: Hermes holding his caduceus and wearing a cloak and hat for travel

Hestia tapestry.jpg Hestia (Ἑστία, Hestía)

Goddess of the hearth, home and chastity. She was described as a virgin. She is a daughter of Rhea and Cronus, and sister of Zeus. She could not often be identified in Greek art. She appeared as a veiled woman. Her symbols are the hearth and kettle. In some descriptions, she gave up her seat as one of the Twelve Olympians to Dionysus, and she plays a minor role in Greek myths. The Roman version of Hestia, however, Vesta, was a major goddess in Roman culture.

Image: Hestia from a relief depicting all twelve Olympians in procession

0035MAN Poseidon.jpg Poseidon (Ποσειδῶν, Poseidōn)

God of the sea, rivers, floods, droughts, earthquakes, and the creator of horses. He is a son of Cronus and Rhea, and brother to Zeus and Hades. He rules one of the three realms of the universe as king of the sea and the waters. In classical artwork, he was depicted as an older man with a very large beard, and holding a trident. The horse and the dolphin are sacred to him. His wife is Amphitrite. The Roman version of Poseidon was Neptune.

Image: Sculpture of Poseidon, from the National Archaeological Museum of Athens

Tetradrachm Zeus Macedonia MBA Lyon.jpg Zeus (Ζεύς, Zeus)

King of the gods, and ruler of Mount Olympus. He is the god of the sky, thunder and lightning, law and order, and fate. He is the youngest son of Cronus and Rhea. He overthrew his father and took the throne of heaven for himself. In artwork, he was depicted as a regal, older man with a dark beard. His usual attributes are the royal sceptre and the lightning bolt. His sacred animals are the eagle and the bull. The Roman version of Zeus, Jupiter, was also the main god of the Romans.

Image: Coin made under Alexander the Great showing Zeus on his throne holding a sceptre and eagle.

Primordial deities[change | edit source]

The primordial deities are the first beings that existed. They are what makes up the universe. All other gods descend from them. The first among them is usually said to be Chaos. Chaos is the nothingness from which all of the others were made. These gods are usually depicted as a place or a realm. Tartarus, for example, is depicted as the deepest pit in the underworld. His brother Erebus is also depicted as a place of darkness, or the emptiness of space. Gaia is depicted as nature or the Earth. Pontus is depicted as the oceans, lakes, and rivers. Chronos is depicted as time.

Pontus in an ancient Roman mosaic from Tunisia
Eos (dawn) and the hero Memnon (490–480 BCE)
Helios in his four-horse chariot (3rd century BCE)
Themis, from the Temple of Nemesis (c. 300 BCE)
Athena watches Prometheus create humans (3rd century CE)

some myths Moros (doom).

Ancient Greek name English name Description
Αἰθήρ (Aithḗr) Aether The god of the upper air and light.
Ἀνάγκη (Anánkē) Ananke The goddess of inevitability, compulsion and need.
Χάος (Cháos) Chaos The nothingness from which everything else came. Described as a void.[6]
Χρόνος (Chrónos) Chronos The god of time. Not to be confused with the Titan Cronus, the father of Zeus.
Ἔρεβος (Érebos) Erebus The god of darkness and shadow.
Ἔρως (Eros) Eros The god of love and attraction.
Γαῖα (Gaîa) Gaia Goddess of the Earth (Mother Earth); mother of the Titans.
Ἡμέρα (Hēméra) Hemera Goddess of daylight.
Ὕπνος ("Hypnos") Hypnos God of sleep.
Nῆσοι (Nē̂soi) The Nesoi The goddesses of islands and the sea.
Νύξ (Nýx) Nyx The goddess of the night.
Οὐρανός (Ouranós) Uranus The god of the heavens (Father Sky); father of the Titans.
Οὔρεα (Oúrea) The Ourea The gods of mountains.
Φάνης (Phánēs) Phanes The god of procreation.

Titans[change | edit source]

The Titans are the older kind of gods in Greek mythology. The original Twelve Titans were children of Gaia (Mother Earth) and Uranus (Father Sky).[7] Their leader was Cronus, who overthrew his father Uranus and became ruler of the gods. Cronus' consort was his sister Rhea. Their children were Zeus, Hades, Poseidon, Hera, Demeter and Hestia. Cronus and the Titans were overthrown by Zeus, his youngest son. They fought a war called the Titanomachy. The Titans are depicted in Greek art less often than the Olympians.

Greek name English name Description
The Twelve Titans
Ὑπερίων (Hyperíōn) Hyperion Titan of light. With Theia, he is the father of Helios (the sun), Selene (the moon), and Eos (the dawn).
Ἰαπετός (Iapetós) Iapetus Titan of mortality and father of Prometheus, Epimetheus, Menoetius and Atlas.
Κοῖος (Koîos) Coeus Titan of intelligence and the axis of heaven.
Κρεῖος (Kreîos) Crius Father of Astraeus, Pallas and Perses. Not much is known about him.[8]
Κρόνος (Crónos) Cronus The leader of the Titans, who overthrew his father Uranus. He was later overthrown by his own son, Zeus. Not to be confused with Chronos, the god of time.
Mνημοσύνη (Mnēmosýnē) Mnemosyne Titan of memory, and mother of the Nine Muses.
Ὠκεανός (Ōceanós) Oceanus Titan of the ocean, the great river that flows around the earth.
Φοίβη (Phoíbē) Phoebe Titan of prophecy, and consort of Coeus.
Ῥέα (Rhéa) Rhea Titan of fertility and mothers. She is the sister and consort of Cronus, and mother of Zeus, Hades, Poseidon, Hera, Demeter and Hestia.
Τηθύς (Tēthýs) Tethys Wife of Oceanus, and the mother of the rivers, fountains and clouds.
Θεία (Theía) Theia Titan of sight and the light of the sky. She is the consort of Hyperion, and mother of Helios, Selene and Eos.
Θέμις (Thémis) Themis Titan of divine law and order.
Other Titans
Ἀστερία (Astería) Asteria Titan of oracles and falling stars.
Ἀστραῖος (Astraîos) Astraeus Titan of dusk, stars and planets and the art of astrology.
Ἄτλας (Átlas) Atlas Titan who was forced to carry the sky upon his shoulders by Zeus. Son of Iapetus.
Αὔρα (Aúra) Aura Titan of the breeze and the air of early morning.
Διώνη (Diṓnē) Dione Titan of the oracle of Dodona.
Ἠώς (Ēṓs) Eos Titan of the dawn.
Ἐπιμηθεύς (Epimētheús) Epimetheus Titan of afterthought and excuses.
Εὐρυβία (Eurybía) Eurybia Titan of the seas and consort of Crius.
Εὐρυνόμη (Eurynómē) Eurynome Titan of pastures, and mother of the three Charites by Zeus.
Ἥλιος (Hḗlios) Helios Titan of the sun and guardian of oaths.
Κλυμένη (Clyménē) Asia Or Clymene. Titan of fame and infamy, and wife of Iapetos.
Λήλαντος (Lēlantos) Lelantos Titan of air and hunters.
Λητώ (Lētṓ) Leto Titan of motherhood and mother of the twins Artemis and Apollo.
Μενοίτιος (Menoítios) Menoetius Titan of anger, rash action and mortality. Killed by Zeus.
Μῆτις (Mē̂tis) Metis Titan of wisdom, advice and cunning. Mother of Athena.
Ὀφίων (Ophíōn) Ophion An elder Titan. In some versions of the myth he ruled the Earth with his consort Eurynome before Cronus overthrew him. Another account describes him as a snake.
Πάλλας (Pállas) Pallas Titan of war. He was killed by Athena during the Titanomachy.
Πέρσης (Pérsēs) Perses Titan of destruction and peace.
Προμηθεύς (Promētheús) Prometheus Titan of forethought and craftiness. Creator of humans.
Σελήνη (Selḗnē) Selene Titan of the moon.
Στύξ (Stýx) Styx Titan of the river Styx in the underworld. Personification of hatred.

Giants[change | edit source]

The Giants (Γίγαντες, Gigantes) were the children of Gaia. She was fertilised by the blood of Uranus, after Uranus was castrated by his son Cronus. After the Titans' lost their war against the Olympians, Gaia made the Giants rise up against the Olympians to restore the Titans' rule. The Olympians got help from the hero Heracles to stop the Giants. This war was the Gigantomachy.[9]

  • The Hekatonkheires (Ἑκατόγχειρες), the Hundred-Handed Ones. Three giant gods of violent storms. Sons of Uranus and Gaia. Each have different characteristics.[10]
    • Briareus or Aigaion (Βριάρεως), the Vigorous
    • Cottus (Κόττος), the Furious
    • Gyges (Γύγης), the Big-Limbed
  • Agrius (Ἄγριος), a man-eating Thracian giant who was half-man and half-bear
  • Alcyoneus (Ἀλκυονεύς), the eldest of the Thracian giants, who was killed by Heracles
  • Aloadae (Ἀλῳάδαι), twin giants who tried to break into heaven
    • Otos (Ότος)
    • Ephialtes (Εφιάλτης)
  • Antaeus (Ἀνταῖος), a Libyan giant who wrestled all those who visited Libya to death. He was killed by Heracles.
  • Argus Panoptes (Ἄργος Πανόπτης), a hundred-eyed giant who kept watch over Io
  • Cyclopes (Elder), three one-eyed giants who made the lightning-bolts of Zeus
    • Arges (Ἄργης)
    • Brontes (Βρόντης)
    • Steropes (Στερόπης)
  • Cyclopes (Younger), a tribe of one-eyed, man-eating giants who herded sheep on the island of Sicily
    • Polyphemus (Πολύφημος), a cyclops who briefly captured Odysseus and his men, but was then blinded by the hero
  • Enceladus (Ἐγκέλαδος), one of the Thracian giants who fought against the gods
  • The Gegenees (Γηγενέες), a tribe of six-armed giants fought by the Argonauts on Bear Mountain in Mysia
  • Geryon (Γηρυών), a three-bodied, four-winged giant who lived on the island of Erytheia
  • The Laestrygonians (Λαιστρυγόνες), a tribe of man-eating giants whom Odysseus met on his travels
  • Orion (Ὠρίων), a giant huntsman whom Zeus placed among the stars as the constellation of Orion
  • Porphyrion (Πορφυρίων), the king of the Thracian Giants. He was killed by Heracles and Zeus with arrows and lightning-bolts after he tried to rape Hera.
  • Talos (Τάλως), a giant forged from bronze by Hephaestus. He was given by Zeus to his lover Europa to be her bodyguard.
  • Tityos (Τίτυος), a giant killed by Apollo and Artemis when he tried to rape their mother Leto.
  • Typhon (Τυφῶν), a monstrous storm-giant who was defeated and imprisoned in the pits of Tartarus

Personified concepts[change | edit source]

  • Achlys (Ἀχλύς), spirit of misery and sadness; or the never-ending night
  • Adephagia (Ἀδηφαγία), spirit of greed
  • Adikia (Ἀδικία), spirit of injustice and doing the wrong thing
  • Aergia (Ἀεργία), spirit of laziness
  • Agon (Ἀγών), spirit of contest, who had an altar at Olympia, where the Olympic Games were held
  • Aidos (Αἰδώς), spirit of modesty and respect
  • Aisa (Αἴσα), personification of fate
  • Alala (Ἀλαλά), spirit of the war cry
  • Alastor (Ἀλάστωρ), spirit of blood feuds and vengeance
  • Aletheia (Ἀλήθεια), spirit of truth
  • The Algea (Ἄλγεα), spirits of pain and suffering
    • Achos (Ἄχος), trouble or distress
    • Ania (Ἀνία), ache or anguish
    • Lupe (Λύπη), pain or sadness
  • Alke (Ἀλκή), spirit of ability and courage
  • Amechania (Ἀμηχανία), spirit of helplessness
  • The Amphilogiai (Ἀμφιλογίαι), spirits of disputes and debates
  • Anaideia (Ἀναίδεια), spirit of ruthlessness, and the unforgiving
  • The Androktasiai (Ἀνδροκτασίαι), spirits of killing in the battles
  • Angelia (Ἀγγελία), spirit of messages and announcements
  • Apate (Ἀπάτη), spirit of deceit
  • Apheleia (Ἀφέλεια), spirit of simplicity
  • Aporia (Ἀπορία), spirit of difficulty
  • The Arae (Ἀραί), spirits of curses
  • Arete (Ἀρετή), spirit of virtue and goodness
  • Atë (Ἄτη), spirit of mischief, delusion, and ruin
  • Bia (Βία), spirit of force, power and strength
  • Caerus (Καιρός), spirit of opportunity
  • Corus (Κόρος), spirit of over-indulgence
  • Deimos (Δεῖμος), spirit of fear
  • Dikaiosyne (Δικαιοσύνη), spirit of justice
  • Dike (Δίκη), spirit of rights and fair judgement
  • Dolos (Δόλος), spirit of tricks and deception
  • Dysnomia (Δυσνομία), spirit of anarchy and lawlessness
  • Dyssebeia (Δυσσέβεια), spirit of disrespecting the gods
  • Eirene (Εἰρήνη), goddess of peace
  • Ekecheiria (Ἐκεχειρία), spirit of truce, and stopping fights; honoured at the Olympic Games
  • Eleos (Ἔλεος), spirit of mercy, pity, and compassion
  • Elpis (Ἐλπίς), spirit of hope
  • Epiphron (Ἐπίφρων), spirit of careful thought
  • Eris (Ἔρις), spirit of strife and discord
Eros
  • The Erotes (ἔρωτες)
    • Anteros (Ἀντέρως), god of love that is returned
    • Eros (Ἔρως), god of love and sex
    • Hedylogos (Ἡδύλογος), god of flattery and flirting
    • Himeros (Ἵμερος), god of sexual desire
    • Pothos (Πόθος), god of lust
  • Eucleia (Εὔκλεια), spirit of glory
  • Eulabeia (Εὐλάβεια), spirit of discretion and caution
  • Eunomia (Εὐνομία), goddess of good law and order
  • Eupheme (Εὐφήμη), spirit of praise, applause, and shouts of triumph
  • Eupraxia (Eὐπραξία), spirit of well-being
  • Eusebeia (Eὐσέβεια), spirit of loyalty, duty and respect
  • Euthenia (Εὐθενία), spirit of wealth
  • Gelos (Γέλως), spirit of laughter
  • Geras (Γῆρας), spirit of old age
  • Harmonia (Ἁρμονία), goddess of harmony
  • Hebe (Ήβη), goddess of youth
  • Hedone (Ἡδονή), spirit of pleasure and fun
  • Heimarmene (Εἵμαρμένη), personification of the fate of the universe
  • Homados (Ὅμαδος), spirit of the noise of battle
  • Homonoia (Ὁμόνοια), spirit of agreements
  • Horkos (Ὅρκος), spirit of oaths
  • Horme (Ὁρμή), spirit of energetic activity, impulse or effort
  • Hybris (Ὕβρις), spirit of sadistic behaviour
Hermes watches Hypnos and Thanatos carry the dead Sarpedon from the battlefield at Troy.
  • Hypnos (Ὕπνος), god of sleep
  • The Hysminai (Ὑσμῖναι), spirits of fighting and combat
  • Ioke (Ἰωκή), spirit of battles
  • Kakia (Kακία), spirit of bad habits and bad morals
  • Kalokagathia (Καλοκαγαθία), spirit of nobility
  • The Keres (Κῆρες), spirits of violent death
  • Koalemos (Κοάλεμος), spirit of stupidity
  • Kratos (Κράτος), spirit of strength and power
  • Kydoimos (Κυδοιμός), spirit of confusion and the noise of battle
  • Lethe (Λήθη), spirit of forgetfulness, and of one of the rivers in the underworld
  • Limos (Λιμός), spirit of hunger and starvation
  • The Litae (Λιταί), spirits of prayer
  • Lyssa (Λύσσα), spirit of rage
  • The Machai (Μάχαι), spirits of fighting and combat
  • Mania (Μανία), spirit or spirits of insanity
  • The Moirai (Μοίραι), or "Fates"
    • Clotho (Κλωθώ), who spins the life thread
    • Lachesis (Λάχεσις), who measures the life thread
    • Atropos (Άτροπος), who cuts the life thread
  • Momus (Μῶμος), spirit of mockery, blame and criticism
  • Moros (Μόρος), spirit of doom
  • The Neikea (τὰ Νείκη), spirits of feuds and arguments
  • Nemesis (Νέμεσις), goddess of revenge and retribution
  • Nike (Νίκη), goddess of victory
  • Nomos (Νόμος), spirit of law
  • Oizys (Ὀϊζύς), spirit of sadness
  • The Oneiroi (Ὄνειροι), spirits of dreams
    • Epiales (Ἐπιάλης), spirit of nightmares
    • Morpheus (Μορφεύς), god of dreams, who takes the shape of humans
    • Phantasos (Φάντασος) spirit of fantasies, who takes the shape of objects
    • Phobetor (Φοβήτωρ) or Icelos (Ἴκελος), spirit of nightmares, who takes the shape of animals
  • Palioxis (Παλίωξις), spirit of retreat from battle
  • Peitharchia (Πειθαρχία), spirit of obeying
  • Peitho (Πειθώ), spirit of persuasion and seduction
  • Penia (Πενία), spirit of poverty and need
  • Penthus (Πένθος), spirit of mourning
  • Pepromene (Πεπρωμένη), personification of the fate of the universe, similar to Heimarmene
  • Pheme (Φήμη), spirit of rumours and gossip
  • Philophrosyne (Φιλοφροσύνη), spirit of kindness
  • Philotes (Φιλότης), spirit of friendship, affection and sex
  • Phobos (Φόβος), spirit of panic and fear
  • The Phonoi (Φόνοι), spirits of murder and killing
  • Phrike (Φρίκη), spirit of horror
  • Phthonus (Φθόνος), spirit of envy and jealousy
  • Pistis (Πίστις), spirit of trust
  • Poine (Ποίνη), spirit of punishment and penalty for the crime of murder
  • Polemos (Πόλεμος), personification of war
  • Ponos (Πόνος), spirit of hard labour
  • Poros (Πόρος), spirit of being able to accomplish something
  • Praxidike (Πραξιδίκη), spirit of getting justice
  • Proioxis (Προίωξις), spirit of pursuit on the battlefield
  • Prophasis (Πρόφασις), spirit of excuses
  • The Pseudologoi, spirits of lies
  • Ptocheia (Πτωχεία), spirit of begging
  • Soter (Σωτήρ) and Soteria (Σωτηρία), spirits of safety
  • Sophrosyne (Σωφροσύνη), spirit of moderation, self-control, temperance, and discretion
  • Techne (Τέχνη), spirit of art and skill
  • Thanatos (Θάνατος), spirit of death and mortality
  • Thrasos (Θράσος), spirit of boldness
  • Tyche (Τύχη), goddess of luck, chance and fate
  • Zelos (Ζῆλος), spirit of rivalry, devotion, emulation and envy

Underworld deities[change | edit source]

These deities lived in the underworld. The ruler of the underworld was Hades, who is listed further above under "Olympians".

  • Amphiaraus (Ἀμφιάραος), a hero of the war of the Seven Against Thebes. He became an oracular spirit of the underworld after he died.
  • Angelos (Ἄγγελος), a daughter of Zeus and Hera who became an underworld goddess
  • Askalaphos (Ἀσκάλαφος), the son of Acheron and Orphne who looked after the orchards in the underworld. She was later transformed into an owl by Demeter.
  • Cerberus (Κέρβερος), the three-headed dog who guarded the gates of Hades
  • Charon (Χάρων), ferryman of Hades
  • Empusa (Ἔμπουσα), monstrous spirits with flames for hair, the leg of a goat and the other leg made of bronze. They are also servants of Hecate.
  • Erebos (Ἔρεβος), the primeval god of darkness, his mists surrounded the underworld and filled the hollows of the earth
  • The Erinyes (Ἐρινύες), the Furies, goddesses of retribution
    • Alecto (Ἀληκτώ), the unceasing one
    • Tisiphone (Τισιφόνη), avenger of murder
    • Megaera (Μέγαιρα), the jealous one
  • Hecate (Ἑκάτη), goddess of magic, witchcraft, the night, ghosts, and necromancy
  • Judges of the Dead
    • Aiakos (Αἰακός), keeper of Hades' keys and judge of the men of Europe. He used to be king of Aegina when he was alive.
    • Minos (Μίνως), judge of the final vote. He had been king of Crete when he was alive.
    • Rhadamanthys (Ῥαδάμανθυς), a former lawmaker and judge of the men of Asia
  • Keuthonymos (Κευθόνυμος), a spirit and the father of Menoetes
  • Cronus (Κρόνος), deposed king of the Titans; after he was released from Tartarus he was made king of the Island of the Blessed
  • Lamia (Λάμια), a vampiric spirit who followed Hecate
  • Lampades (Λαμπάδες), nymphs who held torches
    • Gorgyra (Γοργύρα)
    • Orphne (Ορφνη), mother of Askalaphos
  • Macaria (Μακαρία), daughter of Hades and goddess of blessed death (not the same as the daughter of Heracles)
  • Melinoe (Μελινόη), daughter of Persephone and Zeus who accepted sacrifices offered to the ghosts of the dead
  • Menoetes (Μενοίτης), a spirit who herded the cattle of Hades
  • Mormo (Μορμώ), a fearsome spirit who followed Hecate
  • Nyx (Νύξ), the primeval goddess of night
  • Persephone (Περσεφόνη), queen of the underworld, wife of Hades and goddess of spring
  • Rivers of the Underworld
    • Acheron (Αχέρων), the river of pain
    • Kokytos (Kωκυτός), the river of crying
    • Lethe (Λήθη), the river of forgetfulness
    • Phlegethon (Φλεγέθων), the river of fire
    • Styx (Στύξ), the river of oaths
  • Tartarus (Τάρταρος), the primeval god of the darkest pit of Hades
  • Thanatos (Θάνατος), spirit of death and minister of Hades

Sea deities[change | edit source]

  • Aegaeon (Αιγαίων), god of sea storms and a friend of the Titans
  • Amphitrite (Αμφιτρίτη), sea goddess and consort of Poseidon
  • Benthesikyme (Βενθεσικύμη), daughter of Poseidon, who lived in Ethiopia
  • Brizo (Βριζώ), patron goddess of sailors, who sent prophetic dreams
  • Ceto (Κῆτώ), goddess of the dangers of the ocean and of sea monsters
  • Charybdis (Χάρυβδις), a sea monster and spirit of whirlpools and the tide
  • Cymopoleia (Κυμοπόλεια), a daughter of Poseidon, married to the giant Briareus
  • Delphin (Δέλφιν), the leader of dolphins. Poseidon placed him in the sky as the group of stars called Delphinus.
  • Eidothea (Ειδοθέα), prophetic sea nymph and daughter of Proteus
  • Glaucus (Γλαῦκος), a god of fishermen and sailors
  • Gorgons (Γοργόνες), three monstrous sea spirits
  • The Graeae (Γραῖαι), three ancient sea spirits who personified the white foam of the sea. They shared one eye and one tooth between them.
    • Deino (Δεινώ)
    • Enyo (Ενυώ)
    • Pemphredo (Πεμφρεδώ)
  • The Harpies (Ηάρπυιαι), spirits with wings. They were associated with sudden gusts of wind.
    • Aello (Αελλώ) or Aellope (Αελλώπη) or Aellopous (Αελλόπους)
    • Ocypete (Ωκυπέτη) or Ocypode (Ωκυπόδη) or Ocythoe (Ωκυθόη)
    • Podarge (Ποδάργη) or Podarke (Ποδάρκη)
    • Celaeno (Κελαινώ)
    • Nicothoe (Νικοθόη)
  • Hippocampi (ἱπποκαμπος), the horses of the sea. They are half horse with the tail of a fish.
  • Hydros (Ὑδρος), primordial god of waters
  • The Ichthyocentaurs (Ιχθυοκένταυροι), two sea gods with the upper bodies of men, the lower fore-parts of horses, ending in the long tails of fish
    • Bythos (Βύθος)
    • Aphros (Άφρος)
  • Karkinos (Καρκίνος), a giant crab who worked with the Hydra to kill Heracles. When it died, Hera put it in the sky as the group of stars called Cancer.
  • Ladon (Λάδων), a sea snake with a hundred heads. It guarded the western parts of the sea, and the island and golden apples of the Hesperides.
  • Leucothea (Λευκοθέα), a sea goddess who helped sailors in trouble
  • Nereides (Νηρηίδες), sea nymphs
    • Thetis (Θέτις), leader of the Nereids. She organised the birth of animals in the sea.
    • Arethusa (Αρετούσα), a daughter of Nereus who was transformed into a fountain
    • Galene (Γαλήνη), goddess of calm seas
    • Psamathe (Πσαμάθη), goddess of sandy beaches
  • Nereus (Νηρέας), the old man of the sea, and the god of fish
  • Nerites (Νερίτης), a sea spirit who was transformed into a shell-fish by Aphrodite
  • Oceanus (Ὠκεανός), Titan god of the river Oceanus, that flows around the Earth
  • Palaemon (Παλαίμων), a young sea god who helped sailors in trouble
  • Phorcys (Φόρκυς), god of the hidden dangers of the sea
  • Pontos (Πόντος), primeval god of the sea, father of fish and other sea creatures
Poseidon and Amphitrite riding in a chariot pulled by hippocamps. Two erotes are on either side. Below them are fishermen at work, with nymphs and creatures of the sea in the waters.
  • Poseidon (Ποσειδῶν), king of the sea and leader of the sea gods; also god of rivers, flood and drought, earthquakes, and horses
  • Proteus (Πρωτεύς), a prophetic old sea god who could change shape. He herded Poseidon's seals.
  • Scylla (Σκύλλα), a monstrous sea goddess
  • The Sirens (Σειρῆνες), sea nymphs who lured sailors to their death with their song
    • Aglaope (Αγλαόπη) or Aglaophonos (Αγλαόφωνος) or Aglaopheme (Αγλαοφήμη)
    • Himerope (Ίμερόπη)
    • Leucosia (Λευκοσία)
    • Ligeia (Λιγεία)
    • Molpe (Μολπή)
    • Parthenope (Παρθενόπη)
    • Peisinoe (Πεισινόη) or Peisithoe (Πεισιθόη)
    • Raidne (Ραίδνη)
    • Teles (Τέλης)
    • Thelchtereia (Θελχτήρεια)
    • Thelxiope (Θελξιόπη) or Thelxiepeia (Θελξιέπεια)
  • The Telchines (Τελχινες), sea spirits from the island of Rhodes. The gods killed them when they turned to evil magic.
    • Actaeus (Ακταιος)
    • Argyron (Αργυρών)
    • Atabyrius (Αταβύριος)
    • Chalcon (Χαλκών)
    • Chryson (Χρυσών)
    • Damon (Δαμων) or Demonax (Δημώναξ)
    • Damnameneus (Δαμναμενεύς)
    • Dexithea (Δεξιθέα), mother of Euxanthios by Minos
    • Lycos (Λύκος) or Lyktos (Λύκτος)
    • Lysagora (Λυσαγόρα)
    • Makelo (Μακελώ)
    • Megalesius (Μεγαλήσιος)
    • Mylas (Μύλας)
    • Nikon (Νίκων)
    • Ormenos (Ορμενος)
    • Simon (Σίμων)
    • Skelmis (Σκελμις)
  • Tethys (Τηθύς), wife of Oceanus, and the mother of the rivers, fountains and clouds
  • Thalassa (Θάλασσα), primeval spirit of the sea and consort of Pontos
  • Thaumas (Θαῦμας), god of the wonders of the sea
  • Thoosa (Θόοσα), goddess of strong currents
  • Triteia (Τριτεια), daughter of Triton and friend of Ares
  • Triton (Τρίτων), son and herald of Poseidon. He had the body of a man and the tail of a fish.

Sky deities[change | edit source]

  • Achelois (Ἀχελωΐς), a minor moon goddess
  • Aeolus (Aiolos, Αίολος), god of the winds
  • Aether (Αιθήρ), primeval god of the upper air
  • Alectrona (Αλεκτρονα), goddess of the dawn or waking up
  • Anemoi, gods of the winds
Zephyrus, god of the west wind, holding Hyacinth. Design on a ceramic drinking cup from Attica (c. 480 BC).
    • Boreas (Βορέας), god of the north wind and of winter
    • Eurus (Εύρος), god of the east or southeast wind
    • Notus (Νότος) god of the south wind
    • Zephyrus (Ζέφυρος), god of the west wind
    • Aparctias (Απαρκτίας), another name for the north wind (not the same spirit as Boreas)
    • Apheliotes (Αφηλιώτης), god of the east wind (when Eurus is considered southeast)
    • Argestes (Αργέστης), another name for the west or northwest wind
    • Caicias (Καικίας), god of the northeast wind
    • Circios (Κίρκιος) or Thraskias (Θρασκίας), god of the north-northwest wind
    • Euronotus (Ευρονότος), god of the southeast wind
    • Lips (Λίψ), god of the southwest wind
    • Skeiron (Σκείρων), god of the northwest wind
  • Apollo, god of the sun and light, knowledge, music and healing
  • Arke (Άρκη), messenger of the Titans and twin sister of Iris
  • Astraios (Ἀστραῖος), Titan god of stars, planets and astrology
  • The Astra Planeti (Αστρα Πλανετοι), gods of the five "wandering stars" (planets that can be seen from Earth)
  • Aurai (Αὖραι), nymphs of the cool breeze
    • Aura (Αὖρα), goddess of the breeze and the air of early morning
  • Chaos (Χάος), represented the lower atmosphere which surrounded the earth
  • Chione (Χιόνη), goddess of snow and daughter of Boreas
  • Helios (Ἥλιος), Titan god of the sun and guardian of oaths
  • Selene (Σελήνη), Titan goddess of the moon
  • Eos (Ἠώς), Titan goddess of the dawn
  • Hemera (Ημέρα), primeval goddess of daylight
  • Hera (Ήρα), queen of heaven and goddess of the air and stars
  • Herse (Ἕρση), goddess of the morning dew
  • The Hesperides (Ἑσπερίδες)
  • Iris (Ίρις), goddess of the rainbow and a messenger of the gods
  • Nephelai (Νεφήλαι), cloud nymphs
  • Ouranos (Ουρανός), primeval god of the heavens
  • Pandia (Πανδία), daughter of Selene and Zeus
  • The Pleiades (Πλειάδες), goddesses of the stars named after them
  • Zeus (Ζεύς), king of heaven and god of the sky, thunder and lightning

Rustic deities[change | edit source]

  • Aetna (Αἴτνη), goddess of Mount Etna, the volcano in Sicily
  • Amphictyonis (Αμφικτυονίς), goddess of wine and friendship between nations. This is a local form of the goddess Demeter.
  • Anthousai (Ανθούσαι), flower nymphs
  • Aristaeus (Ἀρισταῖος), god of bee-keeping, making cheese, herding, growing olives, and hunting
  • Attis (Άττις), god of plants and consort of Cybele
  • Britomartis (Βριτόμαρτις), a Cretan goddess of hunting and fishing nets
  • Cabeiri (Κάβειροι), gods or spirits who looked after the Mysteries of the islands of Lemnos and Samothrace
    • Aitnaios (Αιτναιος)
    • Alkon (Αλκων)
    • Eurymedon (Ευρυμεδών)
    • Onnes (Όννης)
    • Tonnes (Τόννης)
  • Centaurs (Κένταυροι), a race of half-man, half-horse beings
  • The Cercopes (Κέρκοπες), a pair of monkey-like thieves who lived in Lydia in western Anatolia
    • Akmon (Ακμών)
    • Passalos (Πάσσαλος)
  • Chloris (Χλωρίς), goddess of flowers and wife of Zephyrus
  • Comus (Κόμος), god of celebrating and partying
  • Corymbus (Κόρυμβος), god of the fruit of the ivy
  • The Curetes (Κουρέτες), looked after baby Zeus on Mount Ida. They are very similar to the Korybantes.
  • Cybele (Κυβέλη), a goddess of mountains and nature. She was a Phrygian goddess adopted by the Greeks. She was associated with Rhea.
  • The Dactyls (Δάκτυλοι), minor deities originally representing fingers of a hand
    • Acmon (Ακμών)
    • Damnameneus (Δαμναμενεύς)
    • Delas (Δήλας)
    • Epimedes (Επιμήδης)
    • Heracles (not the same as the hero with this name)
    • Iasios (Ιάσιος)
    • Kelmis (Κελμις)
    • Skythes (Σκύθης)
    • Titias (Τιτίας), a friend of Cybele
    • Cyllenus (Κύλληνος), a friend of Cybele
  • Dionysus (Διόνυσος), god of wine, parties, and wild plants
  • Dryades (Δρυάδες), tree and forest nymphs
  • Epimeliades (Επιμελίδες), nymphs who protected flocks of sheep
  • Gaia (Γαία), primeval goddess of the earth
  • Hamadryades (Αμαδρυάδες), oak tree dryades
  • Hecaterus (Ηεκατερος), minor god of the hekateris, a dance of involving moving the hands quickly
  • Hephaestus (Ήφαιστος), god of metalworking
  • Hermes (Ερμής), god of roads, herds and flocks
  • The Horae (Ώρες), the Hours
    • The goddesses of law and order
      • Eunomia (Ευνομία), spirit of good order and laws
      • Dike (Δίκη), spirit of moral order and fair justice
      • Eirene (Ειρήνη), spirit of peace
    • The goddesses of the order of nature
      • Thallo (Θαλλώ), goddess of spring, buds and blooms
      • Auxo (Αυξώ), goddess of spring growth
      • Karpo (Καρπώ), goddess of autumn, harvesting and fruits
    • The goddesses of welfare
      • Pherousa (Φέρουσα), goddess of substance
      • Euporie (Ευπορίη), goddess of abundance
      • Orthosie (Ορθοσίη), goddess of prosperity
    • The goddesses of the times of day
      • Auge (Αυγή), first light of the morning
      • Anatole (Ανατολή) or Anatolia (Ανατολία), sunrise
      • Mousika or Musica (Μουσική), the morning hour of music and study
      • Gymnastika, Gymnastica (Γυμναστίκή) or Gymnasia (Γυμνασία), the morning hour of exercise
      • Nymphe (Νυμφή), the morning hour of bathing and washing
      • Mesembria (Μεσημβρία), noon
      • Sponde (Σπονδή), libations poured after lunch
      • Elete, prayer, the first of the afternoon work hours
      • Akte, Acte (Ακτή) or Cypris (Κυπρίς), eating and pleasure, the second of the afternoon work hours
      • Hesperis (Έσπερίς), evening
      • Dysis (Δύσις), sunset
      • Arktos (Άρκτος), night sky
    • The goddesses of seasons
      • Eiar (Είαρ), spring
      • Theros (Θέρος), summer
      • Pthinoporon (Φθινόπωρον), autumn
      • Cheimon (Χειμών), winter
  • Korybantes (Κορύβαντες), the dancers who worshipped Cybele
    • Damneus (Δαμνεύς)
    • Idaios (Ιδαίος)
    • Kyrbas (Κύρβας)
    • Okythoos (Ωκύθοος)
    • Prymneus (Πρυμνεύς)
    • Pyrrhichos (Πυρῥιχος), god of the rustic dance
  • Maenades (μαινάδες), crazed nymphs who follow Dionysus
    • Methe (Μέθη), nymph of drunkenness
  • Meliae (Μελίαι), nymphs of honey and the ash tree
  • Naiades (Ναιάδες), freshwater nymphs
  • The Nymphai Hyperboreioi (Νύμφαι Υπερβόρειοι), gods of the various aspects of archery
    • Hekaerge (Εκαέργη), represented distancing
    • Loxo (Λοξώ), represented trajectory
    • Oupis (Ουπις), represented aim
  • Oreades (Ὀρεάδες), mountain nymphs
    • Adrasteia (Αδράστεια), a nursemaid of the baby Zeus
    • Echo (Ηχώ), a nymph cursed never to speak except to repeat the words of others
  • Oceanides (Ωκεανίδες), freshwater nymphs. The main ones were:
    • Beroe (Βερόη), the daughter of Aphrodite and Adonis, who was seduced by both Dionysus and Poseidon
    • Calypso (Καλυψώ)
    • Clytie (Κλυτίη)
    • Eidyia (Ειδυια), the youngest of the Oceanides
Sculpture of Pan teaching Daphnis to play the pipes (c. 100 BCE).
  • The Ourea (Ούρος), primeval gods of mountains
  • The Palici (Παλικοί), a pair of gods who looked after the geysers and thermal springs in Sicily
  • Pan (Πάν), god of shepherds, pastures and fertility
  • The Potamoi, river gods
  • Priapus (Πρίαπος), god of fertility and gardens
  • Rhea (Ῥέα), the great mother and queen of the mountain wilderness
  • Satyrs (Σάτυροι), fertility spirits
    • Krotos (Κρότος), a hunter and musician who lived with the Muses on Mount Helicon
  • Silenus (Σειληνός), an old god of the dance and of wine
  • Telete (Τελέτη), goddess of initiation into the orgies of Bacchus
  • Zagreus (Ζαγρεύς), the first incarnation of Dionysus in the Orphic mysteries

Agricultural deities[change | edit source]

  • Adonis (Άδωνις), a deity of life, death and rebirth
  • Aphaea (Αφαία), minor goddess of agriculture and fertility
  • Carme (Κάρμη), spirit of the harvest festival in Crete
  • Carmanor (Καρμάνωρ), a Cretan harvest god
  • Chrysothemis (Χρυσόθεμις), goddess of the "Golden Custom", a harvest festival, daughter of Demeter and Carmanor
  • Cyamites (Κυαμίτης), demi-god of the bean
  • Demeter (Δημήτηρ), goddess of fertility, agriculture and harvest
  • Despoina, daughter of Poseidon and Demeter, goddess of mysteries in Arcadia
  • Dionysus (Διόνυσος), god of wine and growing grapes
  • Eunostus (Εύνοστος), goddess of the flour mill
  • Hestia (Ἑστία), goddess of the hearth and the baking of bread
  • Persephone (Περσεφόνη), queen of the underworld, wife of Hades and goddess of spring growth
  • Philomelus (Φιλόμελος), demi-god of agriculture. He was said to have invented the wagon and the plough.
  • Plutus (Πλοῦτος), god of wealth, including agricultural wealth, son of Demeter

Deified mortals[change | edit source]

  • Achilles (Ἀχιλλεύς), hero of the Trojan War
  • Aiakos (Αἰακός), a king of Aegina. He was appointed as a Judge of the Dead in the underworld after his death.
  • Aeolus (Aiolos) (Αἴολος), a king of Thessaly. He was made the immortal king of the winds by Zeus.
  • Amphiaraus (Ἀμφιάραος), a hero of the war of the Seven Against Thebes. He became an oracular spirit of the underworld after his death.
  • Ariadne (Αριάδνη), a princess of Crete who became the immortal wife of Dionysus
  • Aristaeus (Ἀρισταῖος), a hero from Thessaly. For his inventions he was immortalised as the god of bee-keeping, cheese-making, herding, olive-growing, and hunting.
  • Asclepius (Ἀσκληπιός), a healer from Thessaly and a son of Apollo. He was killed by Zeus, but was later put into the sky as the group of stars called Ophiuchus.
  • Attis (Ἄττις), a consort of Cybele. He was given immortality as one of her attendants.
  • Bolina (Βολίνα), a mortal woman transformed into a nymph by Apollo
  • The Dioscuri (Διόσκουροι), divine twins
    • Castor (Κάστωρ)
    • Pollux (Πολυδεύκης)
  • Endymion (Ἐνδυμίων), lover of Selene. He was made to sleep forever so that he would never age.
  • Ganymede (Γανυμήδης), a handsome prince of Troy. He was kidnapped by Zeus and made cup-bearer of the gods.
  • Glaucus (Γλαῦκος), god of fishermen, made immortal after eating a magical herb.
  • Hemithea (Ἡμιθέα) and Parthenos (Παρθένος), princesses of Naxos who jumped into the sea to escape their angry father. Apollo transformed them into demi-goddesses.
  • Heracles (Ἡρακλῆς), divine hero
Athena pouring a drink for Heracles, who wears the skin of the Nemean lion.
  • Lampsace (Λαμψάκη), a Bebrycian princess who was worshipped as a goddess for helping the Greeks
  • Minos (Μίνως), a king of Crete. He was made a Judge of the Dead in the underworld after his death.
  • Ino (Ἰνώ), a princess of Thebes who became the sea goddess Leucothea.
  • The Leucippides (Λευκιππίδες), wives of the Dioscuri
    • Phoebe (Φοίβη), wife of Pollux
    • Hilaeira (Ἱλάειρα), wife of Castor
  • Orithyia (Ὠρείθυια), an Athenian princess. She was kidnapped by Boreas and made the goddess of mountain winds.
  • Palaemon (Παλαίμων), a prince of Thebes made into a sea god along with his mother, Ino
  • Phylonoe (Φυλονόη), daughter of Tyndareus and Leda. She was made immortal by Artemis.
  • Psyche (Ψυχή), goddess of the soul

Health deities[change | edit source]

  • Apollo, god of healing and medicine
    • Asclepius (Ασκληπιός), god of healing
      • Aceso, goddess of the healing of wounds and the curing of illnesses
      • Aegle, goddess of very good health
      • Epione (Ἠπιόνη), goddess of stopping of pain
      • Hygieia (Υγεία), goddess of cleanliness and good health
      • Iaso (Ἰασώ), goddess of cures, and ways of healing
      • Panacea (Πανάκεια), goddess of healing
      • Telesphorus (Τελεσφόρος), demi-god of recuperation from illness or injury

Other deities[change | edit source]

  • Acratopotes (Ἀκρατοπότης), god of unmixed wine and the lack of self-control
  • Agdistis (Ἄγδιστις), a deity of nature who had both male and female sexual organs
  • Alexiares and Anicetus (Αλεξιαρης and Ανικητος), twin sons of Heracles who were associated with defence
  • Aphroditus (Ἀφρόδιτος), a male version of Aphrodite, from Cyprus
  • Astraea (Αστραία), virgin goddess of justice
  • Auxesia (Αυξησία) and Damia (Δαμία), two local goddesses of fertility
  • Charites (Χάριτες), goddesses of charm, beauty, nature, creativity and fertility
  • Aglaea (Αγλαΐα), goddess of beauty, decoration and glory
  • Euphrosyne (Εὐφροσύνη), goddess of joy
  • Thalia (Θάλεια), goddess of celebrations and banquets
The Three Charites, on a fresco at Pompeii (1st century)
  • Hegemone (Ηγεμόνη), goddess of plants
  • Antheia (Άνθεια), goddess of flowers
  • Pasithea (Πασιθέα), goddess of rest and relaxation
  • Cleta (Κλήτα), "the glorious"
  • Phaenna (Φαέννα), "the shining"
  • Eudaimonia (Ευδαιμονία), "happiness"
  • Euthymia (Ευθυμία), "good mood"
  • Calleis (Καλλείς), "beauty"
  • Paidia (Παιδία), "play, amusement"
  • Pandaisia (Πανδαισία), "banquet for everyone"
  • Pannychis (Παννυχίς), "festivity"
  • Ceraon (Κεραων), demi-god of mixing wine
  • Chrysus (Χρύσος), spirit of gold
  • Circe (Κίρκη), a minor goddess of magic. She was a witch living on the island of Aeaea.
  • Daemones Ceramici (Δαίμονες Κεραμικοί), five spirits who plagued the potters
    • Syntribos (Σύντριβος), the one who shatters
    • Smaragos (Σμάραγος), the one who smashes
    • Asbetos (Ασβετος), the one who chars
    • Sabaktes (Σαβάκτης), the one who destroys
    • Omodamos (Ομόδαμος), crudebake
  • Deipneus (Δειπνεύς), demi-god of making bread
  • Eiresione (Ειρεσιώνη), personification of the olive branch
  • Eileithyia (Εἰλείθυια), goddess of childbirth
  • Enyalius (Ενυάλιος), minor god of war
  • Enyo (Ἐνυώ), goddess of destructive war
  • Harpocrates (Ἁρποκράτης), god of silence
  • Hermaphroditus (Ἑρμάφρόδιτός), god of hermaphrodites and effeminate men
  • Hymenaios (Ὑμέναιος), god of marriage and marriage feasts
  • Ichnaea (Ιχναία), goddess of tracking
  • Iynx (Ιύνξ), goddess of the love charm
  • Matton (Μάττων), demi-god of kneading dough
  • Muses (Μούσαι), goddesses of music, song and dance, and the source of inspiration to poets
    • Titan Muses, daughters of Gaia and Uranus
      • Aoide (Ἀοιδή), muse of song
      • Arche (Αρχή), muse of origins
      • Melete (Μελέτη), muse of meditation and practice
      • Mneme (Μνήμη), muse of memory
      • Thelxinoe (Θελξινόη), who charmed minds
    • Olympian Muses, daughters of Zeus and Mnemosyne
      • Calliope (Καλλιόπη), muse of epic poetry
      • Clio (Κλειώ), muse of history
      • Erato (Ερατώ), muse of erotic poetry
      • Euterpe (Ευτέρπη), muse of lyric poetry
      • Melpomene (Μελπομένη), muse of tragedy
      • Polyhymnia (Πολυμνία or Πολύμνια), muse of sacred poetry
      • Terpsichore (Τερψιχόρη), muse of dance and choral poetry
      • Thalia (Θάλεια), muse of comedy and bucolic poetry
      • Urania (Ουρανία), muse of astronomy
    • Younger Muses, daughters of Apollo
      • Cephisso (Κεφισσώ)
      • Apollonis (Απολλωνίς)
      • Borysthenis (Βορυσθενίς)
      • Hypate (Υπάτη), one of the three muses of the lyre
      • Mese (Μέση), one of the three muses of the lyre
      • Nete (Νήτη), one of the three muses of the lyre
    • Polymatheia (Πολυμάθεια), muse of knowledge
  • Palaestra (Παλαίστρα), goddess of wrestling
  • Rhapso (Ραψώ), minor goddess or nymph worshipped in Athens

Mortals[change | edit source]

Heroes[change | edit source]

  • Abderus, helped Heracles during his eighth Labour. He was killed by the Mares of Diomedes.
  • Achilles (Αχιλλεύς or Αχιλλέας), hero of the Trojan War and a main character in the Iliad
  • Aeneas (Αινείας), a hero of the Trojan War and the common ancestor of the Roman people
  • Ajax the Great (Αίας ο Μέγας), a hero of the Trojan War and king of Salamis
  • Ajax the Lesser (Αίας ο Μικρός), a hero of the Trojan War and leader of the Locrian army
  • Amphitryon (Αμφιτρύων), Theban general who rescued Thebes from the Teumessian fox. His wife was Alcmene, mother of Heracles.
  • Bellerophon, hero who killed the Chimera
  • Castor, the mortal Dioscuri twin. After Castor died, his immortal brother Pollux shared his divinity with him so that they could still be together.
  • Chrysippus, a divine hero of Elis
  • Daedalus, creator of the labyrinth and great inventor, until King Minos trapped him in his own creation.
  • Diomedes, a king of Argos and hero of the Trojan War
  • Eleusis, hero of the town of Eleusis
  • Eunostus, a Boeotian hero
  • Ganymede, hero of Troy and lover of Zeus. He was given immortality and made cup-bearer to the gods.
  • Hector, hero of the Trojan War and champion of the Trojans
  • Iolaus, nephew of Heracles who helped his uncle in one of his Labours
  • Jason, leader of the Argonauts
  • Meleager, a hero who sailed with the Argonauts and killed the Calydonian Boar
  • Odysseus, a hero and king of Ithaca. His travels are the subject of Homer's Odyssey. He also played an important role in the Trojan War.
  • Orpheus, a legendary musician and poet who tried to recover his dead wife from the underworld
  • Pandion, the hero of the Pandionis tribe of Attica. He is usually assumed to be one of the legendary Athenian kings Pandion I or Pandion II.
  • Perseus (Περσεύς), the first king of Mycenae and son of Zeus. He killed Medusa.
  • Theseus, son of Poseidon and a king of Athens. He killed the Minotaur.

Notable women[change | edit source]

  • Alcestis (Άλκηστις), daughter of Pelias and wife of Admetus. She was known for being very devoted to her husband.
  • Amymone, the only one of Danaus' daughters who refused to murder her husband
  • Andromache (Ανδρομάχη), wife of Hector
  • Andromeda (Ανδρομέδα), wife of Perseus. She was placed among the stars after her death.
  • Antigone (Αντιγόνη), daughter of Oedipus and Jocasta
  • Arachne (Αράχνη), a skilled weaver who was transformed into a spider by Athena
  • Ariadne (Αριάδνη), daughter of King Minos of Crete. She helped Theseus to kill the Minotaur and became the wife of Dionysus.
  • Atalanta (Αταλάντη), heroine who participated in the Calydonian Boar hunt
  • Briseis, a princess of Lyrnessus, taken by Achilles as a prize of war
  • Caeneus, formerly Caenis, a woman who was transformed into a man and became a warrior.
  • Cassandra, a princess of Troy who was cursed. She could see the future but nobody would ever believe her.
  • Clytemnestra, sister of Helen and wife of Agamemnon
  • Danaë, the mother of Perseus by Zeus
  • Deianeira, the second wife of Heracles. She was tricked into killing her husband.
  • Electra, daughter of Agamemnon and Clytemnestra. She helped her brother Orestes plan revenge against their mother for the murder of their father.
  • Europa, a Phoenician woman, kidnapped by Zeus
  • Hecuba (Ἑκάβη), wife of Priam, king of Troy, with whom she had 19 children
  • Helen, daughter of Zeus and Leda. Her abduction caused the Trojan War.
  • Hermione (Ἑρμιόνη), daughter of Menelaus and Helen. She was the wife of Neoptolemus, and later Orestes.
  • Iphigenia, daughter of Agamemnon and Clytemnestra. Agamemnon sacrificed her to Artemis to make the goddess happy.
  • Ismene, sister of Antigone
  • Jocasta, mother and wife of Oedipus
  • Medea, a sorceress and wife of Jason. She killed her own children to punish Jason for being unfaithful.
  • Medusa, a mortal woman transformed into a monster by Athena
  • Niobe, a daughter of Tantalus. She claimed to be superior to Leto, which caused Artemis and Apollo to kill her 14 children.
  • Pandora, the first woman
  • Penelope, loyal wife of Odysseus
  • Phaedra, daughter of Minos and wife of Theseus
  • Polyxena, the youngest daughter of Priam. She was sacrificed to the ghost of Achilles.
  • Semele, mortal mother of Dionysus

Kings[change | edit source]

  • Abas, a king of Argos
  • Acastus, a king of Iolcus. He sailed with the Argonauts and participated in the Calydonian Boar hunt.
  • Acrisius, a king of Argos
  • Actaeus, first king of Attica
  • Admetus (Άδμητος), a king of Pherae. He sailed with the Argonauts and participated in the Calydonian Boar hunt.
  • Adrastus (Άδραστος), a king of Argos and one of the Seven Against Thebes
  • Aeacus (Αιακός), a king of the island of Aegina. After he died, he became one of the three judges of the dead in the underworld.
  • Aeëtes, a king of Colchis and father of Medea
  • Aegeus (Αιγεύς), a king of Athens and father of Theseus
  • Aegimius, a king of Thessaly and the common ancestor of the Dorians
  • Aegisthus (Αίγισθος), lover of Clytemnestra. Together they planned to murder Agamemnon and become king and queen of Mycenae.
  • Aegyptus (Αίγυπτος), a king of Egypt
  • Aeson, father of Jason and rightful king of Iolcus. His throne was taken from him by his half-brother Pelias.
  • Aëthlius, first king of Elis
  • Aetolus (Αιτωλός), a king of Elis
  • Agamemnon (Ἀγαμέμνων), a king of Mycenae and commander of the Greek armies during the Trojan War
  • Agasthenes, a king of Elis
  • Agenor (Αγήνωρ), a king of Phoenicia
  • Alcinous (Αλκίνους or Ἀλκίνοος), a king of Phaeacia
  • Alcmaeon, a king of Argos and one of the Epigoni
  • Aleus, a king of Tegea
  • Amphiaraus (Ἀμφιάραος), a seer and king of Argos. He participated in the Calydonian Boar hunt and the war of the Seven Against Thebes.
  • Amphictyon (Ἀμφικτύων), a king of Athens
  • Amphion and Zethus, twin sons of Zeus and kings of Thebes. They built the city's walls.
  • Amycus, son of Poseidon and king of the Bebryces
  • Anaxagoras (Ἀναξαγόρας), a king of Argos
  • Anchises (Αγχίσης), a king of Dardania and father of Aeneas
  • Arcesius, a king of Ithaca and father of Laertes
  • Argeus, a king of Argos
  • Argus, a son of Zeus and king of Argos after Phoroneus
  • Assaracus, a king of Dardania
  • Asterion, a king of Crete
  • Athamas (Ἀθάμας), a king of Orchomenus
  • Atreus (Ἀτρεύς), a king of Mycenae and father of Agamemnon and Menelaus
  • Augeas (Αυγείας), a king of Elis
  • Autesion, a king of Thebes
  • Bias, a king of Argos
  • Busiris, a king of Egypt
  • Cadmus, first king of Thebes
  • Car, a king of Megara
  • Catreus, a king of Crete. A prophecy said that his own son would kill him.
  • Cecrops, a native king of Athens
  • Ceisus, a king of Argos
  • Celeus, a king of Eleusis
  • Cephalus, a king of Phocis who accidentally killed his own wife
  • Cepheus, a king of Ethiopia
  • Cepheus, a king of Tegea who sailed with the Argonauts
  • Charnabon, a king of the Getae
  • Cinyras, a king of Cyprus and father of Adonis
  • Codrus, a king of Athens
  • Corinthus, first king of Corinth
  • Cranaus, a king of Athens
  • Creon, a king of Thebes, brother of Laius and uncle of Oedipus
  • Creon, a king of Corinth who was friendly towards Jason and Medea
  • Cres, an early king of Crete
  • Cresphontes, a king of Messene descended from Heracles
  • Cretheus, first king of Iolcus
  • Criasus, a king of Argos
  • Cylarabes, a king of Argos
  • Cynortas, a king of Sparta
  • Cyzicus, king of the Dolionians. He was mistakenly killed by the Argonauts.
  • Danaus, a king of Egypt and father of the Danaides
  • Dardanus, first king of Dardania, and son of Zeus and Electra
  • Deiphontes, a king of Argos
  • Demophon of Athens, a king of Athens
  • Diomedes, a king of Argos and hero of the Trojan War
  • Echemus, a king of Arcadia
  • Echetus, a king of Epirus
  • Eetion, a king of Cilician Thebe and father of Andromache
  • Electryon, a king of Tiryns and Mycenae. Son of Perseus and Andromeda.
  • Elephenor, a king of the Abantes of Euboea
  • Eleusis, king of Eleusis in Attica
  • Epaphus, a king of Egypt and founder of Memphis
  • Epopeus, a king of Sicyon
  • Erechtheus, a king of Athens
  • Erginus, a king of Minyean Orchomenus in Boeotia
  • Erichthonius, a king of Athens. He was born out of Hephaestus' attempt to rape Athena.
  • Eteocles, a king of Thebes and son of Oedipus. He and his brother Polynices killed each other.
  • Eteocles, a king of Orchomenus
  • Eurotas, a king of Sparta
  • Eurystheus, a king of Tiryns
  • Euxantius, a king of Ceos, son of Minos and Dexithea
  • Gelanor, a king of Argos
  • Haemus, a king of Thrace
  • Helenus, seer and twin brother of Cassandra. He later became king of Epirus.
  • Hippothoön, a king of Eleusis
  • Hyrieus, a king of Boeotia
  • Ilus, first king of Troy
  • Ixion, a king of the Lapiths. He tried to rape Hera and was imprisoned in Tartarus.
  • Laërtes, father of Odysseus and king of the Cephallenians. He sailed with the Argonauts and participated in the Calydonian Boar hunt.
  • Laomedon, a king of Troy and father of Priam
  • Lycaon of Arcadia, an Arcadian king who was transformed into a wolf by Zeus
  • Lycurgus of Arcadia, a king of Arcadia
  • Lycurgus of Nemea, a king of Nemea
  • Makedon, a king of Macedon
  • Megareus of Onchestus, a king of Onchestus in Boeotia
  • Megareus of Thebes, a king of Thebes
  • Melampus, a legendary soothsayer and healer, and king of Argos
  • Melanthus, a king of Messenia
  • Memnon, a king of Ethiopia who fought on the side of Troy during the Trojan War
  • Menelaus, a king of Sparta and the husband of Helen
  • Menestheus, a king of Athens who fought on the side of the Greeks during the Trojan War
  • Midas, a king of Phrygia. He was given the power to turn anything to gold just by touching it.
  • Minos, a king of Crete. After his death, he became one of the judges of the dead in the underworld.
  • Myles, a king of Laconia
  • Nestor, a king of Pylos who sailed with the Argonauts. He participated in the Calydonian Boar hunt and fought with the Greek armies in the Trojan War.
  • Nycteus, a king of Thebes
  • Odysseus, a hero and king of Ithaca whose travels are the subject of Homer's Odyssey. He also played a major role in the Trojan War.
  • Oebalus, a king of Sparta
  • Oedipus, a king of Thebes. He fulfilled a prophecy that said he would kill his father and marry his mother.
  • Oeneus, a king of Calydon
  • Oenomaus, a king of Pisa
  • Oenopion, a king of Chios
  • Ogygus, a king of Thebes
  • Oicles, a king of Argos
  • Oileus, a king of Locris
  • Orestes, a king of Argos and a son of Clytemnestra and Agamemnon. He killed his mother in revenge for her murder of his father.
  • Oxyntes, a king of Athens
  • Pandion I, a king of Athens
  • Pandion II, a king of Athens
  • Peleus, king of the Myrmidons and father of Achilles. He sailed with the Argonauts and participated in the Calydonian Boar hunt.
  • Pelias, a king of Iolcus. He took the throne from the rightful heir, Aeson.
  • Pelops, a king of Pisa and founder of the House of Atreus
  • Pentheus, a king of Thebes. He banned people from worshipping Dionysus, and was torn apart by Maenads.
  • Perseus (Περσεύς), first king of Mycenae. He killed Medusa.
  • Phineus, a king of Thrace
  • Phlegyas, a king of the Lapiths
  • Phoenix, first king of Phoenicia
  • Phoroneus, a king of Argos
  • Phyleus, a king of Elis
  • Pirithoös, king of the Lapiths and husband of Hippodamia. The Battle of Lapiths and Centaurs occurred at his wedding.
  • Pittheus, a king of Troezen and grandfather of Theseus
  • Polybus of Corinth, a king of Corinth
  • Polybus of Sicyon, a king of Sicyon and son of Hermes
  • Polybus of Thebes, a king of Thebes
  • Polynices, a king of Thebes and son of Oedipus. He and his brother Eteocles killed each other.
  • Priam, king of Troy during the Trojan War
  • Proetus, a king of Argos and Tiryns
  • Pylades, a king of Phocis and friend of Orestes
  • Rhadamanthys, a king of Crete. After his death, he became a judge of the dead in the underworld.
  • Rhesus, a king of Thrace who sided with Troy in the Trojan War
  • Sarpedon, a king of Lycia and son of Zeus. He fought on the side of the Greeks during the Trojan War.
  • Sisyphus, a king of Thessaly who tried to cheat death. He was sentenced to an eternity of rolling a heavy rock up a hill, only to watch it roll back down.
  • Sithon, a king of Thrace
  • Talaus, a king of Argos who sailed with the Argonauts
  • Tegyrios, a king of Thrace
  • Telamon, a king of Salamis and father of Ajax. He sailed with the Argonauts and participated in the Calydonian Boar hunt.
  • Telephus, a king of Mysia and son of Heracles
  • Temenus, a king of Argos and descendant of Heracles
  • Teucer, first king of Salamis. He fought on the side of the Greeks in the Trojan War.
  • Teutamides, a king of Larissa
  • Teuthras, a king of Mysia
  • Thersander, a king of Thebes. He was one of the Epigoni.
  • Theseus, a king of Athens. He killed the Minotaur.
  • Thyestes, a king of Mycenae and brother of Atreus
  • Tisamenus, a king of Argos, Mycenae and Sparta
  • Tyndareus, a king of Sparta

Seers[change | edit source]

Seers were prophets, people who were said to be able to see the future or predict events before they happened.

  • Amphilochus (Αμφίλοχος), a seer and brother of Alcmaeon. He died in the war of the Seven Against Thebes.
  • Anius, son of Apollo who prophesied that the Trojan War would end in its tenth year
  • Branchus, a seer and son of Apollo
  • Calchas, an Argive seer who helped the Greeks during the Trojan War
  • Carnus, an Acarnanian seer and lover of Apollo
  • Carya, a seer and lover of Dionysus
  • Cassandra, a princess of Troy who was cursed. She could see the future but nobody would ever believe her.
  • Ennomus, a Mysian seer, killed by Achilles during the Trojan War
  • Halitherses, an Ithacan seer. He warned the men who wanted to marry Penelope that Odysseus would return.
  • Helenus, seer and twin brother of Cassandra, who later became king of Epirus
  • Iamus, a son of Apollo who was also a prophet. He founded the Iamidai.
  • Idmon, a seer who sailed with the Argonauts
  • Manto, seer and daughter of Tiresias
  • Melampus, a legendary soothsayer and healer, and king of Argos
  • Mopsus, the name of two legendary seers
  • Polyeidos, a Corinthian seer who saved the life of Glaucus
  • Telemus, a seer who foresaw that the Cyclops Polyphemus would be blinded by Odysseus
  • Theoclymenus, an Argive seer
  • Tiresias, blind prophet of Thebes

Amazons[change | edit source]

  • Aegea (Αιγέα), a queen of the Amazons
  • Aella (Ἄελλα), an Amazon who was killed by Heracles
  • Alcibie(Ἀλκιβίη), an Amazonian warrior, killed by Diomedes at Troy
  • Antandre (Ἀντάνδρη), an Amazonian warrior, killed by Achilles at Troy
  • Antiope (Ἀντιόπη), a daughter of Ares and sister of Hippolyta
  • Areto (Ἀρετώ), an Amazon
  • Asteria (Ἀστερία), an Amazon who was killed by Heracles
  • Bremusa (Βρέμουσα), an Amazonian warrior, killed by Idomeneus at Troy
  • Celaeno (Κελαινώ), an Amazonian warrior, killed by Heracles
  • Eurypyle (Εὐρυπύλη), an Amazon leader who invaded Ninus and Babylonia
  • Hippolyta (Ἱππολύτη), a daughter of Ares and queen of the Amazons
  • Hippothoe (Ἱπποθόη), an Amazonian warrior, killed by Achilles at Troy
  • Iphito (Ἰφιτώ), an Amazon who served under Hippolyta
  • Lampedo (Λαμπεδώ), an Amazon queen who ruled with her sister Marpesia
  • Marpesia (Μαρπεσία), an Amazon queen who ruled with her sister Lampedo
  • Melanippe (Μελανίππη), a daughter of Ares and sister of Hippolyta and Antiope
  • Molpadia (Μολπαδία), an Amazon who killed Antiope
  • Myrina (Μύρινα), a queen of the Amazons
  • Orithyia (Ὠρείθυια), an Amazon queen
  • Otrera (Ὀτρήρα), a queen of the Amazons, consort of Ares and mother of Hippolyta
  • Pantariste (Πανταρίστη), an Amazon who fought with Hippolyta against Heracles
  • Penthesilea (Πενθεσίλεια), a queen of the Amazons who fought in the Trojan War on the side of Troy

Inmates of Tartarus[change | edit source]

  • The Danaides, forty-nine daughters of Danaus who murdered their husbands. They were punished for their crimes by being made to carry water in leaking jugs forever.
  • Ixion, a king of the Lapiths who tried to rape Hera. He was tied to a burning wheel in Tartarus as punishment.
  • Sisyphus, a king of Thessaly who tried to cheat death. He was sentenced to an eternity of rolling a big round rock up a hill, only to watch it roll back down.
  • Tantalus, a king of Anatolia who killed his son Pelops and served him as a meal to the gods. He was punished with the torture of starvation. Food and drink dangled forever just out of his reach.

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References[change | edit source]

  1. M. L. West, Hesiod: Theogony, Oxford University Press (1966), pages 40, 47
  2. Antony Andrewes, Greek Society, Pelican Books (1971), pages 254–5
  3. According to Stoll, Heinrich Wilhelm (translated by R. B. Paul) (1852). Handbook of the religion and mythology of the Greeks. Francis and John Rivington. p. 8. "The limitation of their number [of the Olympians] to twelve seems to have been a comparatively modern idea"
  4. Plato, The Laws, 828 d-e
  5. Wikisource-logo.svg, Plato: Phaedrus, 246 e-f
  6. "Chaos". Who's Who in Classical Mythology, Routledge. 2002. http://www.credoreference.com/entry/routwwcm/chaos. Retrieved 16 June 2011.
  7. Hesiod, Theogony 132–138.
  8. "About the other siblings of Kronos no close inquiry is called for," observes Friedrich Solmsen, in discussing "The Two Near Eastern Sources of Hesiod", Hermes 117.4 (1989:413–422) p. 419. "They prove useful for Hesiod to head his pedigrees of the gods", adding in a note "On Koios and Kreios we have to admit abysmal ignorance."
  9. Aaron J. Atsma. "Gigantes". Theoi Project. http://www.theoi.com/Gigante/Gigantes.html. Retrieved 20 September 2013.
  10. Guirand, Felix, ed. (16 December 1987). New Larousse Encyclopedia of Mythology. Crescent Books. ISBN 978-0-517-00404-3.
  11. Schmitz, Leonhard (1867). "Achelous". In Smith, William. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. 1. Boston, MA. pp. 8–9. http://www.ancientlibrary.com/smith-bio/0017.html.