List of victims of Nazism

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Millions of people were arrested, tortured or murdered by the Nazis. This is a list of victims of Nazism who were famous for some reason.

This list includes people from public life who, owing to their origins, their political or religious convictions, or their sexual orientation, lost their lives as a result of Nazism. This list includes those whose deaths were part of The Holocaust as well as people who died in other ways at the hands of the Nazis during World War II. People who died in concentration camps are listed alongside those who were murdered by the National Socialists or those who chose suicide for political motives or to avoid being murdered.

This list is sorted by occupation and within by nationality.


Literature and publishing[change | edit source]

Name Born Died How they died Where they died Nationality Achievements
Else Feldmann 1884 1942 Austrian writer and journalist
Egon Friedell 1878 1938 Austrian writer and philosopher
Peter Hammerschlag 1902 1942 Austrian writer and graphic artist
Stefan Zweig 1942 suicide Brazil Austrian writer
Jura Soyfer 1912 1939 Buchenwald Austrian journalist, writer
Yitzhak Katzenelson 1886 1944 Belarusian teacher, writer
Petr Ginz 1928 1944 Czech editor of Vedem
Julius Fučík 1903 1943 Czech resistance leader
Milena Jesenská 1944 Ravensbrück Czech journalist
Paul Kornfeld 1889 1942 Czech writer
Karel Poláček 1892 1944 Czech writer
Vladislav Vančura 1891 1942 Prague Czech writer, doctor
Etty Hillesum 1914 1943 Auschwitz Dutch writer, diary author
Helga Deen 1925 1943 Dutch author of a published diary
Benjamin Fondane 1898 1944 French poet, literary critic
Walter Benjamin 1892 1940 German literary critic and philosopher
Felix Fechenbach 1894 1933 German journalist and activist
Walter Hasenclever 1890 1940 German expressionist writer
Jakob van Hoddis 1942 Sobibór German Jew writer
Jochen Klepper 1942 suicide Berlin German writer
Erich Knauf 1944 Brandenburg German journalist, poet
Adam Kuckhoff 1943 Berlin-Plötzensee German writer, dramatist, resistance fighter
Erich Mühsam 1934 Oranienburg German Jew writer, anarchist
Willi Münzenberg 1940 suicide/murder France German publisher, politician
Friedrich Münzer 1868 1942 German philologist
Carl von Ossietzky 1938 Berlin German publicist
Erich Salomon 1944 Auschwitz German photojournalist
Libertas Schulze-Boysen 1942 Berlin-Plötzensee German film critic, resistance fighter
Miklós Radnóti 1909 1944 Hungarian poet
Antal Szerb 1901 1945 Hungarian writer, literary scholar
Mordechai Gebirtig 1877 1942 Polish Jew Yiddish poet, musician and composer
Bruno Schulz 1892 1942 Polish writer
Wilhelm Eduard Schmid 1934 German music critic
Selma Meerbaum-Eisinger 1942 Romanian Jew writer
David Vogel 1944/5 Auschwitz Russian Jew Hebrew writer
Anton de Kom 1945 Neuengamme Surinamese author, human rights activist
Irène Némirovsky 1942 Auschwitz Ukrainian Jew writer
Anne Frank 12 June 1929 1945 Belsen German Jew Writer

Theatre and film[change | edit source]

Name Lifespan Nationality Achievements
Hana Brady 1931-1944 Czech girl portrayed in Hana's Suitcase: A True Story
René Blum 1878-1942 French founder of the Ballet de l'Opéra à Monte Carlo
Ernst Arndt died 1942/3 Treblinka German writer and poet
Maria Bard died 1944 suicide, Berlin? German actress (suicide)
Kurt Gerron died 1944 Auschwitz German Jew performer, actor, film director
Dora Gerson died 1943 Auschwitz German Jew actress, cabaret singer
Joachim Gottschalk died 1941 suicide, Berlin German actor
Joseph Schmidt died 1942 Gyrenbad Ukrainian Jew singer, actor

Visual arts and design[change | edit source]

Name Lifespan Nationality Achievements
Friedl Dicker-Brandeis 1896-1944 Austrian artist
Felix Nussbaum 1904-1944 Austrian painter
Josef Čapek died 1945 Bergen-Belsen Czech painter, draughtsman, illustrator, writer
Samuel J. de Mesquita 1868-1944 Dutch painter and designer
Abraham Icek Tuschinski 1886-1942 Dutch designer of the Tuschinski Theater
Max Jacob 1876-1944 French artist
Ernst Ludwig Kirchner died 1938 suicide, Davos German painter
Elfriede Lohse-Wächtler died 1940 Aktion T4 victim, Pirna German painter
Charlotte Salomon 1917-1943 Auschwitz German painter
Jan Rubczak 1884-1942 Polish painter, graphic artist
Nicolaus Rossini 1898-1943 Kraków-Płaszów Polish artist, wartime hero

Music[change | edit source]

See also: List of composers influenced by the Holocaust

Name Lifespan Nationality Achievements
Pavel Haas 1899- 1944 Auschwitz Czech composer
Gideon Klein 1919-1945 Auschwitz Czech composer
Hans Krása 1899-1944 Auschwitz Czech (Bohemian) composer
Erwin Schulhoff 1894-1942 Czech composer, jazz pianist
Viktor Ullmann 1898-1944 Czech composer, pianist
Karlrobert Kreiten died 1943 Berlin-Plötzensee German pianist
Alma Rosé died 1944 Auschwitz Austrian violinist, conductor
Leo Smit 1900-1943 Dutch composer
Marcel Tyberg 1893-1944 Auschwitz Austrian composer, pianist, conductor

Humanities[change | edit source]

Name Lifespan Nationality Achievements
Mildred Harnack died 1943 Berlin-Plötzensee American literary historian, translator, resistance fighter
Elise Richter died 1943 Theresienstadt Austrian Jew Romance philology professor
Simon Dubnow 1860-1941 Belarusian Jew historian, writer, activist
Norbert Jokl 1877-1942 Czech albanologist
Marc Bloch 1886-1944 Saint-Didier-de-Formans French historian, resistance leader
Maurice Halbwachs 1877-1945 French philosopher
Georges Politzer 1902-1942 French philosopher
Walter Benjamin died 1940 suicide to avoid extradition, Portbou German philosopher
Friedrich Münzer died 1942 Theresienstadt German Jew classical scholar

Mathematics[change | edit source]

Name Lifespan Nationality Achievements
Georg Alexander Pick 1859-1943 Austrian Pick's theorem
Felix Hausdorff died 1942 suicide, Bonn German one of the founders of modern topology
Friedrich Hartogs died 1943 suicide, Großhesselohe German Jew foundational work in set theory
Robert Remak died 1942 Auschwitz German
Adolf Lindenbaum died 1941 Ghetto Vilnius Polish work in set theory
Antoni Łomnicki 1881-1941 Polish
Stanisław Ruziewicz 1889-1941 Polish Ruziewicz problem
Stanisław Saks died 1942 murdered in prison by the Gestapo, Warsaw Polish work in measure theory
Włodzimierz Stożek 1883-1941 Polish
Alfred Tauber died 1942 Theresienstadt Slovakian Tauberian theorems

Natural sciences[change | edit source]

Name Lifespan Nationality Achievements
Ernst Cohen 1869-1944 Dutch chemist, work on the allotropy of metals
Walter Arndt died 1944 executed, Brandenburg German zoologist

Medicine, psychology, paedagogy[change | edit source]

Name Lifespan Nationality Achievements
Adolf Reichwein died 1944 executed, Berlin-Plötzensee German doctor, educator, politician
Elisabeth von Thadden died 1944 executed, Berlin-Plötzensee German educator
Tadeusz Boy-Żeleński 1874-1941 Polish paediatrician, poet, translator
Antoni Cieszyński 1882-1941 Polish physician, dentist, surgeon
Władysław Dobrzaniecki 1897-1941 Polish physician, surgeon
Janusz Korczak 1878-1942 Treblinka Polish Jew doctor, child physician, wartime hero

Law, business[change | edit source]

Name Lifespan Nationality Achievements
Maurice Halbwachs died 1945 Buchenwald French sociologist, economist, philosopher, developer of collective memory
Elisabeth de Rothschild 1902-1945 French wife of Baron Philippe de Rothschild
Klaus Bonhoeffer died 1945 executed, Berlin German jurist, resistance fighter
Hans von Dohnanyi died 1945 executed, Sachsenhausen German jurist, resistance fighter
Reinhold Frank died 1945 executed, Berlin-Plötzensee German lawyer, member of July 20 Plot
Martin Gauger died 1941 NS-Tötungsanstalt Sonnenstein German jurist, pacifist, member of the Kreisau Circle
Franz Kaufmann 1886-1944 German jurist
Helmuth James Graf von Moltke d. 1945 executed, Berlin-Plötzensee German jurist, founder of the Kreisau Circle
Karl Sack d. 1945 executed, Flossenbürg German jurist, member of the July 20 plot
Rüdiger Schleicher d. 1945 executed, Berlin German resistance fighter
Kazimierz Proszyński 1875-1945 Polish inventor

Theology, spirituality, religion[change | edit source]

Name Lifespan Nationality Achievements
Kai Munk d. 1944, murdered by an SS-Sonderkommando, Hørbylunde/Denmark Danish theologian, playwright
Dietrich Bonhoeffer 1906-1945 German Lutheran pastor, theologian
Regina Jonas d. 1944 Auschwitz German Jew woman Rabbi
Jochen Klepper d. 1942 suicide shortly before deportation, Berlin German theologian, journalist
Friedrich Lorenz d. 1944 executed, Halle an der Saale German priest, member of Missionary Oblates of Mary Immaculate
Rupert Mayer 1876-1945 German Jesuit priest
Paul Schneider d. 1939 Buchenwald German clergyman
Edith Stein 1891-1942 German nun, Catholic saint (born Jewish)
Sándor Büchler 1869-1944 Hungarian rabbi, historian
Avraham Yitzchak Bloch 1891-1941 Lithuanian Chief Rabbi, rosh yeshiva of the Telz Yeshiva
Elchonon Wasserman 1875-1941 Lithuanian rabbi, rosh yeshiva
Azriel Rabinowitz 1905-1941 Lithuanian rabbi, rosh yeshiva at the Telz Yeshiva
Shimon Shkop 1860-1940 Lithuanian rosh yeshiva, Talmudic scholar
Maximilian Kolbe 1894-1941 (Auschwitz) Polish friar, Catholic saint
Stefan Wincenty Frelichowski 1913-1945 (Dachau) Polish priest
Karl Ernst Krafft died 1945 during transport to Buchenwald Swiss astrologer, occultist

Sport[change | edit source]

Name Lifespan Nationality Achievements
Alfred Flatow 1869-1942 German gymnast; 3-time Olympic gold medalist & 1-time silver medalist
Gustav Flatow 1875-1945 German gymnast; 2-time Olympic gold medalist
Bronisław Czech 1908-1944 Polish skier: Olympian
János Garay (fencer) 1889-1945 Hungarian fencer; Olympic gold, silver, and bronze medalist
Oszkár Gerde 1883-1944 Hungarian fencer; 2-time Olympic gold medalist
Otto Herschmann 1877-1942 Austrian fencer & swimmer; 2-time Olympic silver medalist
Roman Kantor 1912-1943 Polish fencer; Olympian
Janusz Kusociński 1907-1940 executed in Palmiry Polish athlete;1932 Los Angeles men's athletics gold medalist
Salo Landau 1903-1944 Dutch chess player
Vera Menchik 1906-1944 British-Czech chess player; world champion
Victor Perez 1911-1945 Tunisian boxer; world flyweight champion
Attila Petschauer 1904-1943 Hungarian fencer; 2-time Olympic gold medalist & 1-time silver medalist
Werner Seelenbinder 1904-1944 executed, Brandenburg an der Havel German wrestler; Olympian
Johann Wilhelm Trollmann 1907-1943 Neuengamme German boxer; German national champion

Politics, resistance[change | edit source]

Name Lifespan Nationality Achievements
Edgar André died 1936 executed, Hamburg Communist
Friedrich Aue died 1944 executed, Brandenburg Communist
Judith Auer died 1944 executed, Berlin resistance fighter
Bernhard Bästlein died 1944 executed, Brandenburg Communist
Albrecht Graf von Bernstorff died 1945 murdered in custody, Berlin diplomat
Cato Bontjes van Beek died 1944 executed, Berlin-Plötzensee resistance fighter
Rudolf Breitscheid died 1944 Buchenwald Social democrat
Hans Coppi died 1942 executed, Berlin-Plötzensee resistance fighter
Hilde Coppi died 1943 executed, Berlin-Plötzensee resistance fighter
Otto Eggerstedt died 1933 Esterwegen Social democrat
Fritz Elsas died 1945 Sachsenhausen politician
Georg Elser died 1945 executed, Dachau manual labourer, Rotfront-Kämpfer
Yitzhak Gitterman died 1943 fighting in Warsaw Ghetto Uprising Polish Politician, Director of American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee
Carl Friedrich Goerdeler died 1945 executed, Berlin-Plötzensee Mayor of Leipzig, Putschist
Herschel Grynszpan died Ort and Datum unbekannt, wahrscheinlich im Gestapo-Gefängnis Berlin-Moabit German Jew resistance fighter
Max Habermann died 1944 im Gefängnis von Gifhorn trade unionist
Albrecht Haushofer died 1945 executed, Berlin-Moabit German diplomat, writer
Rudolf Henning died 1944 executed, Sachsenhausen
Rudolf Hilferding died 1941 in Gestapo-Haft, Paris Social democrat
Otto Hirsch died 1941 Mauthausen concentration camp Representation of German Jews
Camill Hoffmann died 1944 Auschwitz diplomat, writer
Martin Hoop died 1933 Zwickau Communist, District Leader KPD, Saxony
Franz Jacob died 1944 executed, Brandenburg Communist
Walter Krämer died 1941 "shot while trying to escape", KZ Goslar Communist
Marian Kudera died 1944 executed, Dachau resistance fighter
Albert Kuntz died 1945 Nordhausen an den Folgen der Folter Communist
Ludwig Landmann died 5 March 1945, Versteck verhungert DDP Politician, Mayor of Frankfurt am Main
Julius Leber died 1944 executed, Berlin-Plötzensee Socialist
Wilhelm Leuschner died 1944 executed, Berlin-Plötzensee Politician
Marinus van der Lubbe died 1934, Leipzig Dutch Council Communist
August Lütgens died 1933 executed, Amtsgericht Altona Communist
Rosa Manus died 1943 Ravensbrück Women's rights advocate
Walter Möller died 1933 executed, Amtsgericht Altona Communist
Ottilie Pohl died 1942 Theresienstadt resistance fighter
Fritz Pröll died 1944 suicide due to threatened torture, Nordhausen resistance fighter
Anton Saefkow died 1944 executed, Zuchthaus Brandenburg Communist, resistance fighter
Ernst Schneller died 1944 executed, Sachsenhausen KPD Politician
Werner Scholem died 1940 Buchenwald Communist
Hans Scholl died 1943 executed, Munich-Stadelheim Prison German resistance fighter, medical student
Sophie Scholl died 1943 executed, München-Stadelheim German resistance fighter, student
Bruno Tesch died 1933 executed, Amtsgericht Altona Communist
Ernst Thälmann died 1944 executed, Buchenwald KPD Politician
Mathias Thesen died 1944 executed, Sachsenhausen
Adam von Trott zu Solz died 1944 executed, Berlin-Plötzensee diplomat
Karl Wolff died 1933 executed, Amtsgericht Altona Communist
Richard Schmitz died 1938 Austrian mayor of Vienna
Georges Mandel 1885-1944 French politician, resistance leader
Victor Basch 1877-1945 French esthetician, politician
Jenő Deutsch  (Eugen Deutsch) 1879-1944 Hungarian social democratic politician [1]
Kazimierz Bartel 1882-1941 Polish Prime Minister of Poland 1926-1930
Stefan Rowecki 1895-1944 Polish general, journalist, leader of the Armia Krajowa
Stefan Starzyński 1893-1943 Polish politician, economist, writer, statesman

Military[change | edit source]

Name Lifespan Nationality Achievements
Erich Fellgiebel d. 1944 executed, Berlin-Plötzensee German officer and resistance fighter in the Third Reich
Ludwig Beck d. 1944 shot, Berlin German General, Putschist
Werner von Haeften d. 1944 shot, Berlin jurist, adjutant of Claus Schenk Graf von Stauffenberg
Erich Hoepner d. executed, Berlin-Plötzensee demoted Colonel General, member of Military opposition about Claus Schenk von Stauffenberg
Albrecht Mertz von Quirnheim d. 1944 shot, Berlin General, Putschist
Friedrich Olbricht d. 1944 shot, Berlin General, Putschist
Hans Oster d. 1945 executed, Flossenbürg Chief of staff
Harro Schulze-Boysen d. 1942 executed, Berlin-Plötzensee officer, publicist
Claus Schenk Graf von Stauffenberg d. 1944 shot, Berlin Chief of staff of General Army Office, Putschist
Carl Heinrich von Stülpnagel d. 1944 executed, Berlin-Plötzensee military commander in occupied France
Henning von Tresckow d. 1944 suicide, near Ostrov, Russia Major General, Putschist
Erwin von Witzleben d. 1944 executed, Berlin-Plötzensee retired Field Marshal
Wilhelm Canaris d. 1945 executed, Flossenbürg German military information service
Erwin Rommel d. 1944 executed German Army(Wehrmacht), Feld Marchall
Dimitri Zouralis d. 1941 executed Greek Army(Greek), Commander

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