Lithium hydroxide is a white solid. It can be anhydrous (without extra water molecules attached) or hydrated (water added to it). It dissolves in water to make a basic solution. It reacts with acids to make lithium salts.
Lithium hydroxide is made by reacting lithium carbonate with calcium hydroxide. A calcium carbonate solid is made and a lithium hydroxide solution is left behind. It can also be made by reacting lithium with water or by reacting lithium oxide with water.
It is used in spaceships to absorb carbon dioxide. It reacts with carbon dioxide to make lithium carbonate. This prevents people from suffocating in a spaceship. Lithium hydroxide is used to make lithium greases. They are resistant to water and can be used in high or low temperatures. It is used to transfer heat. It can be used in electrolytes. It is also used to prevent corrosion in some nuclear reactors. It can be used to glaze ceramics and make cement.
Lithium hydroxide is corrosive, like the other alkali metal hydroxides. It is also a little toxic because it has lithium in it. It can burn skin.
- Ulrich Wietelmann, Richard J. Bauer "Lithium and Lithium Compounds" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry 2005, Wiley-VCH: Weinheim. doi:10.1002/14356007.a15_393