Louise of Mecklenburg-Strelitz

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Louise of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
Queen consort of Prussia
Electress consort of Brandenburg
Portrait by Josef Grassi
Tenure 16 November 1797 – 19 July 1810
Spouse Frederick William III
Issue
Frederick William IV, King of Prussia
William I, German Emperor
Alexandra Feodorovna, Empress of Russia
Princess Frederica
Prince Charles
Alexandrine, Grand Duchess of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
Prince Ferdinand
Louise, Princess Frederick of the Netherlands
Prince Albert
Full name
Luise Auguste Wilhelmine Amalie
House House of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
House of Hohenzollern
Father Charles II, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
Mother Landgravine Friederike of Hesse-Darmstadt
Born 10 March 1776(1776-03-10)
Hanover
Died 19 July 1810(1810-07-19) (aged 34)
Schloss Hohenzieritz
Burial Charlottenburg
Signature
Religion Lutheran

Duchess Louise of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (German: Luise Auguste Wilhelmine Amalie Herzogin zu Mecklenburg; 10 March 1776 – 19 July 1810) was Queen consort of Prussia as the wife of King Frederick William III.

Painting of Queen Louise, c. 1801

After her husband's ascension, Louise developed many ties to senior ministers and became a powerful figure within the government as she began to command universal respect and affection. The queen always tried to stay informed of political developments at court, and from the very beginning of his reign the new king consulted Louise on matters of state.[1]

Though Prussia had not fought in a war since 1795, its military leaders were confident that they could win against Napoleon's troops. After a small incident concerning an anti-French pamphlet occurred, King Frederick William was finally pressured by his wife and family to break off his uneasy peace and enter the war against the French emperor.[2] Prussian troops began mobilizing, culminating in the October 1806 Battle of Jena-Auerstedt, which was a disaster for Prussia, as the ability of its armed forces to continue the war were effectively wiped out. The king and queen had accompanied their troops into battle at Jena (with Louise apparently dressed "like an Amazon"), but had to flee from French troops.[3]

The infamous meeting of Queen Louise and Napoleon Bonaparte (far left), 1807. Painted posthumously by Nicolas Gosse, c. 1900
Queen Louise with her husband and children, c. 1806

Napoleon himself occupied Berlin, and the king, queen and the rest of the royal family had to flee, despite Louise's illness, in the dead of winter to Königsberg in the easternmost part of the kingdom.[4] On the journey there, there was no food or clean water, and the king and queen were forced to share the same sleeping arrangements in "one of the wretched barns they call houses", according to one witness traveling with them.[5]

Napoleon demanded, from a highly superior position, peace terms in what was to be called the Peace of Tilsit (1807).[6] In the midst of these negotiations, the emperor agreed to keep half of Prussia intact. Louise reluctantly agreed to meet the emperor at Tilsit, but only to save "her Prussia." She tried to use her beauty and charm to flatter him into more favorable terms. Before she had called him "the Monster", but now she made a request for a private interview with the emperor. She threw herself at his feet;[7] Napoleon was impressed by her grace and determination, but he refused to make any concessions. Queen Louise's efforts to protect her adopted country from French aggression became well admired by future generations.

Queen Louise in a riding habit, c. 1810
Louise's sarcophagus in Charlottenburg Palace

On 19 July 1810, the Queen died in her husband's arms from an unidentified illness. The queen's subjects attributed the French occupation as the cause of her early death. Louise's death left her husband alone during a period of great difficulty, as the Napoleonic Wars and need for reform continued. Napoleon remarked the king "has lost his best minister."[8]

Ancestry[change | change source]

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
16. Adolf Frederick I, Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
8. Adolf Frederick II, Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
17. Duchess Marie Katharina of Brunswick-Dannenberg
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
4. Duke Charles Louis Frederick of Mecklenburg, Prince of Mirow
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
18. Christian Wilhelm, Prince of Schwarzburg-Sondershausen
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
9. Princess Christiane Emilie of Schwarzburg-Sondershausen
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
19. Countess Antonie Sibylle of Barby-Muhlingen
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
2. Charles II, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
20. Ernest, Duke of Saxe-Hildburghausen
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
10. Ernest Frederick I, Duke of Saxe-Hildburghausen
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
21. Countess Sophie of Waldeck
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
5. Princess Elizabeth Albertine of Saxe-Hildburghausen
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
22. Count Georg Ludwig of Erbach-Erbach
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
11. Countess Sophie Albertine of Erbach-Erbach
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
23. Countess Amalia Katharina of Waldeck
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1. Louise of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
24. Ernest Louis, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
12. Louis VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
25. Margravine Dorothea Charlotte of Brandenburg-Ansbach
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
6. Prince George William of Hesse-Darmstadt
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
26. Count Johann Reinhard III of Hanau
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
13. Countess Charlotte Christine Magdalene Johanna of Hanau
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
27. Countess Dorothea Friederike of Brandenburg-Ansbach
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
3. Princess Friederike of Hesse-Darmstadt
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
28. Count Johann Karl August of Leiningen-Dagsburg
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
14. Count Christian Karl Reinhard of Leiningen-Dagsburg
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
29. Countess Johanna Magdalene of Hanau-Lichtenberg
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
7. Maria Luise Albertine von Leiningen-Dagsburg-Falkenburg
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
30. Count Ludwig of Solms-Rödelheim
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
15. Countess Katharina Polyxena of Solms-Rödelheim
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
31. Charlotte Sibylla Ahlefeld, Countess of Ahlefeld
 
 
 
 
 
 

References[change | change source]

  1. Clark, p. 217.
  2. Herold, p. 179.
  3. Herold, p. 180.
  4. Clark, p. 307.
  5. Clark, p. 312.
  6. Clark, p. 309.
  7. Herold, p. 188.
  8. Knowles Bolton, p. 58.

Sources[change | change source]

Further reading[change | change source]

  • Schulte, R. (2002). "The Queen – A Middle–Class Tragedy: The Writing of History and the Creation of Myths in Nineteenth–Century France and Germany". Gender & History 14: 266–293. doi:10.1111/1468-0424.00266
     .
  • Wright, Constance (1969). Beautiful Enemy: A Biography of Queen Louise of Prussia. Dodd, Mead. ISBN B0006C00XY
      .

Other websites[change | change source]