The Migration Period, also called Barbarian Invasions or Völkerwanderung, is a name given by historians to a human migration which happened in the period of roughly AD 300–700 in Europe. That was the period at the end of Ancient history and the beginning of the Middle Ages.
The migration included the Goths, Vandals, and Franks, among other Germanic, Bulgar and Slavic tribes. The migration may have been influenced by attacs of the Huns in the east and connected to the Turkic migration in Central Asia, population pressures, or climate changes.
Migrations would continue well beyond 1000 AD, successive waves of Slavs, Alans, Avars, Bulgars, Hungarians, Pechenegs, Cumans, and Tatars changed the ethnic makeup of Eastern Europe. Western European historians, however, tend to stress the migrations most relevant to Western Europe.
- Precise dates given may vary; often cited is 410, the sack of Rome by Alaric I and 751, the accession of Pippin the Short and the establishment of the Carolingian Dynasty.
- J.B. Bury (1923). History of the Later Roman Empire. Available online.