Nome (Egypt)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Map of the nomes of lower Egypt
Map of the nomes of upper Egypt

A nome (from Greek: Νομός, “district”) was a administrative part of ancient Egypt. This is the Greek name introduced late in Egypt's history; the Egyptian name was "sepat".

The division of ancient Egypt into nomes happened before 3100 BC. These nomes originally existed as autonomous city-states, but later began to unify. According to ancient tradition, the ruler Menes completed the final unification.[1].

The nomes remain in place for more than three millennia.

Lower Egypt, from the Old Kingdom capital Memphis to the Mediterranean Sea, had 20 nomes. The first was based around Memphis, Saqqara, and Giza, in the area occupied by modern-day Cairo. The nomes were numbered in a more or less orderly fashion south to north through the Nile delta. The numbering started in the west, and continued with the higher numbers in the east. Alexandria was in the Third Nome; Bubastis was in the Eighteenth.

Upper Egypt was divided into 22 nomes. The first of these was centered around Elephantine close to Egypt's border with Nubia at the First Cataract – the area of modern-day Aswan. From there the numbering progressed downriver in an orderly fashion along the narrow fertile strip of land that was the Nile valley. Waset (ancient Thebes or contemporary Luxor) was in the Fourth Nome, Amarna in the Fourteenth, and Meidum in the Twenty-First.

List of nomes[change | change source]

The nomes are listed in separate tables for Upper and Lower Egypt

Lower Egypt[change | change source]

Number Egyptian Name Capital Modern Capital Translation
1 Aneb-Hetch Ineb Hedj / Men-nefer / Menfe (Memphis) Mit Rahina White Walls
2 Khensu Khem (Letopolis) Ausim Cow's thigh
3 Ament Imu (Apis) Kom el-Hisn West
4 Sapi-Res Ptkheka Tanta Southern shield
5 Sap-Meh Zau (Sais) Sa el-Hagar Northern shield
6 Khaset Khasu (Xois) Sakha Mountain bull
7 A-ment (Hermopolis Parva, Metelis) Damanhur West harpoon
8 A-bt Tjeku / Per-Atum (Heroonpolis, Pithom) Tell al-Maskhuta East harpoon
9 Ati Djed (Busiris) Abu Sir Bara Andjeti
10 Ka-khem Hut-hery-ib (Athribis) Banha (Tell Atrib) Black bull
11 Ka-heseb Taremu (Leontopolis) Tell al-Urydam Heseb bull
12 Theb-ka Tjebnutjer (Sebennytos) Samanud Calf and Cow
13 Heq-At Iunu (Heliopolis) Materiya (suburb of Cairo) Prospering Sceptre
14 Khent-abt Tjaru (Sile, Tanis) Tell Abu Sefa Eastmost
15 Tehut Ba'h / Weprehwy (Hermopolis Parva) Baqliya Ibis
16 Kha Djedet (Mendes) Tell al-Rubˁ Fish
17 Semabehdet Semabehdet (Diospolis Inferior) Tell el-Balamun The throne
18 Am-Khent Per-Bastet (Bubastis) Tell Bastah (near Zagazig) Prince of the South
19 Am-Pehu Dja'net (Leontopolis Tanis) Nebesha or San el-Hagar Prince of the North
20 Sopdu Per-Sopdu Saft al-Henna Plumed Falcon

Upper Egypt[change | change source]

Number Egyptian Name Capital Modern Capital Translation
1 Ta-Seti Abu / Yebu (Elephantine) Aswan Land of the bow
2 Thes-Hor Djeba (Apollonopolis Magna) Edfu Throne of Horus
3 Ten Nekhen (Hierakonpolis) al-Kab Shrine
4 Waset Niwt-rst / Waset (Thebes) Karnak Sceptre
5 Herui Gebtu (Coptos) Qift The two falcons
6 Aa-ta Lunet / Tantere (Tentyra) Dendera The crocodile
7 Seshesh Seshesh (Diospolis Parva) Hu Sistrum
8 Abdju Abdju (Abydos) al-Birba Great land
9 Min Apu / Khen-min (Panopolis) Akhmim Min
10 Wadkhet Djew-qa (Aphroditopolis) Ifteh Cobra
11 Set Shashotep (Hypselis) Shutb The creature associated with Set
12 Tu-ph Hut-Sekhem-Senusret (Antaeopolis) Qaw al-Kebir Viper mountain
13 Atef-Khent Zawty (z3wj-tj, Lycopolis) Asyut Upper Sycamore and Viper
14 Atef-Pehu Qesy (Cusae) al-Qusiya Lower Sycamore and Viper
15 Un Khemenu (Hermopolis Magna) al-Ashmunayn Hare
16 Meh-Mahetch Hebenu Kom el Ahmar Oryx
17 Anpu Saka (Cynopolis) al-Kais Anubis
18 Sep Teudjoi / Hutnesut (Alabastronopolis) el-Hiba Set
19 Uab Per-Medjed (Oxyrhynchus) el-Bahnasa Two Sceptres
20 Atef-Khent Henen-nesut (Herakleopolis Magna) Ihnasiyyah al-Madinah Southern Sycamore
21 Atef-Pehu Shenakhen / Semenuhor (Crocodilopolis, Arsinoe) Madinat al-Fayyum Northern Sycamore
22 Maten Tepihu (Aphroditopolis) Atfih Knife

References[change | change source]

Alan K. Bowman (1990). Egypt After the Pharaohs. Oxford University Press.

  1. Herodotus, Euterpe, 2.4.1 and 2.99.1ff.

Other websites[change | change source]