||The English used in this article may not be easy for everybody to understand. (October 2011)|
The Oxford Movement, also known as the 'Tractarians' (from Tracts for the Times, a collection of books, pamphlets and essays that described their beliefs) and by their enemies as Newmanites (before 1845) and Puseyites (after 1845), after John Henry Newman and Edward Bouverie Pusey, two important Tractarians, was a religious movement, based at the University of Oxford, which tried to bring back Catholic or Roman thought, doctrine and forms of service (how Sunday and other Church sermons were carried out, the Oxford Movement wanting to make it more like a Catholic Mass into the Anglican Church. It also believed the Anglican church was 'apostolic' or connected directly to the Church of Saint Peter and the Apostles.
After publishing ninety Tracts, Newman decided, in Tract 90, that the Branch Theory (that the Anglicans, Eastern Orthodox and Roman Church were all part of the one Church) was not enough, and converted to Catholicism, becoming a Cardinal. Enemies of the Movement thought this proved that they were trying to reunify with Rome. Others followed Newman to Rome (for example, Manning, another important Tractarian, converted in 1851) while others, such as Pusey and John Keble, remained in the Anglican Church to continue reforming.
Today, it is represented in the 'Anglo-Catholic' or High Church (more Catholic, as opposed to Low Church, more Protestant) part of the Anglican Church, the smaller, conservative part. Recently, with the Anglican Church debating if female clergymen should be allowed, some Anglo-Catholics, such as Bishop Burnham, Bishop Newton and sixty priests have left the Church and converted to Rome in protest, as they do not believe female bishops, or female priests should be allowed.