Parapneuroptera

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Parapneuroptera
Magicicada septendecim, a cicada (Hemiptera)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Subclass: Pterygota
Infraclass: Neoptera
Superorder: Paraneoptera
Orders

Psocoptera – bark lice Phtiraptera – lice Thysanoptera – thrips Hemiptera – true bugs

Paraneoptera is a monophyletic superorder of insects.

It includes four orders, the bark lice, true lice, thrips, and hemipterans, the true bugs.[1]

The mouthparts of the Paraneoptera reflect diverse feeding habits. Basal groups are microbial surface feeders, whereas more advanced groups feed on plant or animal fluids.[1]

Hemiptera[change | edit source]

Hemiptera (pronounced /hɛˈmɪptərə/) is an order of insects most often known as the true bugs (cf. bug), comprising around 50,000–80,000 species of cicadas, aphids, planthoppers, leafhoppers, shield bugs, and others. They range in size from 1 millimetre (0.039 in) to around 15 centimetres (5.9 in), and share a common arrangement of sucking mouthparts.

Psocoptera[change | edit source]

Psocoptera, the bark lice, include 4,400 described species arranged in 3 suborders. There are 50 families of bark lice with over 200 genera. This is the first insect order to show the beginnings of a transition to sucking mouthparts. It is sister group to the Phthiraptera. Bark lice are found on foliage, under bark, or in leaf litter.

Phthiraptera[change | edit source]

Pediculus humanus

Phthiraptera, the lice, includes 5,000 described species divided into 4 suborders.

The body of a louse is dorsoventrally flattened and the eyes are absent or nearly so. The legs are strong for holding onto fur or feathers of the host. All species of lice are parasitic. Lice parasitise all orders of birds and most orders of mammals.

Thrips[change | edit source]

Ponticulothrips diospyrosi on finger for scale

Order Thysanoptera includes 5,500 species classified into two suborders. These insects are called thrips.

The mouth is in the form of an asymmetrical mouth cone, consisting of piercing stylets. Thrips are commonly found on and in flowers. Most species are phytophagous, feeding on flowers.

References[change | edit source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 David A. Grimaldi & Michael S. Engel (2005). "The Paraneopteran Orders". Evolution of the insects. Volume 1 of Cambridge Evolution Series. Cambridge University Press. pp. 261–330. ISBN 9780521821490. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=Ql6Jl6wKb88C&pg=PA261.