Parnassiinae is a subfamily of butterflies. It belongs in the family Papilionidae. They are commonly known as Apollos and Parnassians. The butterflies in this subfamily are only found in the Holarctic Region (the Holarctic Region is the northern part of North America and Eurasia).
The caterpillars and adults are poisonous to vertebrates. The caterpillars are thought to be Müllerian mimics with millipedes. The adult butterflies are thought to be Müllerian mimics with adult Whites.
After mating, the male glues a structure to the end of the female's abdomen. This keeps the female from mating again. This structure is called a sphragis.
Tribes and genera [change]
Extinct species [change]
The two species listed here are extinct. They are also of uncertain placement.
- ↑ Bernard D'Abrera (1990). Butterflies of the Holarctic Region Part 1: Papilionidae, Pieridae, Danaidae, and Satyridae (Partim). Hill House, Victoria, Australia. ISBN 0-646-01202-9
- ↑ 2.0 2.1 James A. Scott (1986). The Butterflies of North America. Stanford University Press, Stanford, CA. ISBN 0-8047-2013-4
Other websites [change]