Psychedelic mushroom

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Dried psilocybe mushrooms. (Notice that the stems are blue at the ends)

Psilocybin mushrooms, also known as Psychedelic mushrooms, contain the alkaloid psilocybin and other related tryptamine derivatives. Psilocybin changes certain things in the brain. This leads to the nerve cells giving more signals - generally translated to a different consciousness. This can lead to effects like hallucinations or visions. They can also be used for medical purposes to treat cluster headaches[1], obsessive-compulsive disorder,[2] and certain kinds of depression.

Some people who use them later have psychological problems.

Psilocybin can kill in extremely high doses. The LD50 of Psilocybin is 280 mg/kg for rats, this is about 1.5 times that of caffeine. In normal psychedelic mushrooms, psilocybin makes up about 1% of their weight. Therefore, nearly 1.7 kilograms of dried mushrooms, or 17 kilograms of fresh mushrooms, would be required for a 60 kg person to reach the 280 mg/kg LD50 rate of rats.

Psilocybin mushrooms have likely been used since prehistoric times and may have been depicted in rock art. Many cultures have used these mushrooms in religious rites. In modern Western society, they are used recreationally for their psychedelic effects.

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