Rhodesia

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Rhodesia
Unrecognized state

1965–1979
Flag Coat of arms
Motto
Sit Nomine Digna (Latin)
"May she be worthy of the name"
Anthem
"Rise O Voices of Rhodesia" (from 1974)
Capital Salisbury
Language(s) English
Government
President¹
 - 1970–1975 Clifford Dupont
 - 1976–1978 John Wrathall
Prime minister
 - 1965–1979 Ian Smith
Historical era Cold War
 - Independence (UDI) 11 November 1965
 - Republic declared 2 March 1970
 - Zimbabwe-Rhodesia 1 June 1979
 - Zimbabwe 17 April 1980
Area
 - 1978 390,580 km2 (150,804 sq mi)
Population
 - 1978 est. 6,930,000 
     Density 17.7 /km2  (46 /sq mi)
Currency Rhodesian pound (until 1970)
Rhodesian dollar (from 1970)
¹ The government recognised Queen Elizabeth II as the official Head of State from 1965 to 1970. The highest official of Rhodesia held the title "Officer Administering the Government" (OAtG) as he acted in lieu of the official Governor, who remained at his post but was ignored. After Rhodesia became a republic in March 1970 the president replaced the OAtG as the highest official, and the Governor returned to London.

Rhodesia was an unrecognized state in Southern African during the Cold War. It was comprised of the region that is now called Zimbabwe. The country was the de facto successor to the British colony of Southern Rhodesia.

Nomenclature[change | change source]

The official name of the country under British law was "Southern Rhodesia", but the government in Salisbury used the name "Rhodesia" instead. This situation dated back to October 1964, when the colony of Northern Rhodesia changed its name to Zambia following independence, so the colonial government felt that "Southern" Rhodesia should no longer be used because there was no "Northern" Rhodesia. However, Britain believed that only there government could change the colony's name and not the colony itself.

History[change | change source]

Unilateral Declaration of Independence (UDI)[change | change source]

The British government adopted a policy called no independence before majority rule, which dictated that colonies with a certain amount of white settlers would not become independent until they adopted a policy of majority rule. This had conflicted with the beliefs of the white minority Rhodesian Front, lead by Ian Smith, which believed that Rhodesia should become an independent country anyway. This continued until relations between the colony and the British government broke down in 1965.

On 11 November 1965, Smith's government issued a unilateral declaration of independence (UDI) from the United Kingdom. Many countries condemned the UDI and the United Nations Security Council placed sanctions on Rhodesia.

Rhodesia sought international recognition as a Commonwealth realm, with Queen Elizabeth II as "Queen of Rhodesia", but later severed it links to the British Crown by becoming a republic on 2 March 1970.