Rotavirus

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Rotavirus
Two rotaviruses
Virus classification
Group: Group III (dsRNA)
Order: Unassigned
Family: Reoviridae
Subfamily: Sedoreovirinae
Genus: Rotavirus
Type species
Rotavirus A
Species

Rotavirus A
Rotavirus B
Rotavirus C
Rotavirus D
Rotavirus E

Rotavirus is a virus that causes diarrhoea. Most of the time only children who are younger than five years old get the disease.[1] The signs of the disease are severe diarrhoea and vomiting, which start suddenly and last for two or three days.[2] Rotavirus also causes diarrhoea in animals.[3] A vaccine, which prevents children from getting the disease is available in many countries.[4]

Like most viruses, rotaviruses are made from RNA and protein. The RNA carries the genes that are used to make more rotaviruses. They are called rotaviruses because they sometimes look like little wheels and "rota" is the latin word for "wheel".[1] Rotaviruses get into the body through the mouth and are not present in the air like the viruses that cause colds.[5] The disease is most often spread by dirty hands and things used for cooking, but the viruses can contaminate water.[5] Rotaviruses are very small. They are a lot smaller than bacteria and can only be seen using an electron microscope.[6]

Children who have not been vaccinated usually get infected more than once. But when children are about five years old they are usually immune and cannot get it any more. This is because their bodies have become resistant to the viruses.[7]

Rotaviruses infect the cells that the small intestine is made from. This makes it difficult for the body to digest food. Children usually make a complete recovery from the infection.[8] But it is very important to make sure they drink enough water to replace what they are losing. In many countries the medicine used is called "oral rehydration solution". This comes in a small packet that is added to drinking water. It contains salt and sugar, which helps the body take up the water.[9]

Rotaviruses were discovered in the 1970s.[10] Since then doctors and scientists have shown that they are a problem to children all over the world. More than 500,000 children die from rotavirus infection each year[11] and almost two million more become severely ill. [12] The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation are helping to pay for rotavirus vaccines in countries that cannot afford to buy them.[13] Between 2006 and 2011 he gave more than 82 million US dollars.[14]

References[change | edit source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 J. Angel, M. A. Franco and H. B. Greenberg (2009). in Desk Encyclopedia of Human and Medical Virology. Boston: Academic Press. p. 274. ISBN 0-12-375147-0.
  2. Rotavirus UK Health Protection Agency
  3. Saif LJ, Fernandez FM (September 1996). "Group A rotavirus veterinary vaccines". The Journal of Infectious Diseases 174 Suppl 1: S98–106. PMID 8752298.
  4. J. Angel, M. A. Franco and H. B. Greenberg (2009). in Desk Encyclopedia of Human and Medical Virology. Boston: Academic Press. p. 279. ISBN 0-12-375147-0.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Dennehy PH (October 2000). "Transmission of rotavirus and other enteric pathogens in the home". The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 19 (10 Suppl): S103–5. PMID 11052397.
  6. Albert Z. Kapikian and Robert E. Shope, Chapter 63, Rotaviruses, Reoviruses, Coltiviruses, and Orbiviruses, full text
  7. National Health Service UK, Rotavirus Gastroenteritis
  8. Mary K. Estes (2001). in Gastroenteritis viruses. New York: Wiley. pp. 82-93. ISBN 0-471-49663-4.
  9. Michael J. G. Farthing (2001). in Gastroenteritis viruses. New York: Wiley. pp. 289-299. ISBN 0-471-49663-4.
  10. Bishop R (October 2009). "Discovery of rotavirus: Implications for child health". Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 24 Suppl 3: S81–5. doi:10.1111/j.1440-1746.2009.06076.x. PMID 19799704.
  11. World Health Organization. Rotavirus vaccines position paper.
  12. Simpson E, Wittet S, Bonilla J, Gamazina K, Cooley L, Winkler JL (2007). "Use of formative research in developing a knowledge translation approach to rotavirus vaccine introduction in developing countries". BMC Public Health 7: 281. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-7-281. PMC 2173895. PMID 17919334.
  13. Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, Diarrhea, Rotavirus and Enteric Diseases
  14. Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation Search for Rotavirus

Other pages[change | edit source]