Sexagenary cycle

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

The sexagenary cycle (六十花甲 liùshí huājiǎ), also known as the "stems-and-branches" or "trunks-and-branches" (干支 gānzhī), is a traditional Chinese calendar system. It is a list of sixty terms which are used for identifying days or years.[1]

History[change | edit source]

The oldest Chinese system for recording and organizing time uses repeated periods of 60 days.[2]

Ancient records show that the sexagenary cycle was used to count years in the 3rd century B.C.[2]

The repeating series of 60 terms has been an important part of historical calender systems in East Asia, including China, Japan, Korea, Tibet and Vietnam.

Overview[change | edit source]

Each term in the sexagenary cycle is made up of two Chinese characters:

Heavenly stems[change | edit source]

No. Heavenly
Stem
Chinese
name
Japanese
name
Korean
name
Vietnamese
name
Yin yang Wu xing
Mandarin
(Pinyin)
Cantonese
(Jyutping)
Onyomi Kunyomi with
corresponding kanji
Romanized Hangul
1 jiǎ gaap3 kō (こう) kinoe (木の兄) gap giáp yang wood
2 jyut3 otsu (おつ) kinoto (木の弟) eul ất yin
3 bǐng bing2 hei (へい) hinoe (火の兄) byeong bính yang fire
4 dīng ding1 tei (てい) hinoto (火の弟) jeong đinh yin
5 mou6 bo () tsuchinoe (土の兄) mu mậu yang earth
6 gei2 ki () tsuchinoto (土の弟) gi kỷ yin
7 gēng gang1 kō (こう) kanoe (金の兄) gyeong canh yang metal
8 xīn san1 shin (しん) kanoto (金の弟) shin tân yin
9 rén jam4 jin (じん) mizunoe (水の兄) im nhâm yang water
10 guǐ gwai3 ki () mizunoto (水の弟) gye quý yin

Earthly branches[change | edit source]

No. Earthly
Branch
Chinese
name
Japanese
name
Korean
name
Vietnamese
name
Vietnamese
zodiac
Chinese
zodiac
Corresponding
hours
Mandarin
(pinyin)
Cantonese
(Jyutping)
Onyomi Kunyomi Romanized Hangul
1 zi2 shi ne ja Rat (chuột) Rat () 11 p.m. to 1 a.m.
2 chǒu cau2 chū ushi chuk sửu Ox (trâu) Ox () 1 to 3 a.m.
3 yín jan4 in tora in dần Tiger (hổ/cọp) Tiger () 3 to 5 a.m.
4 mǎo maau5 u myo mẹo/mão Rabbit (mèo) Rabbit[5] () 5 to 7 a.m.
5 chén san4 shin tatsu jin thìn Dragon (rồng) Dragon () 7 to 9 a.m.
6 zi6 shi mi sa tỵ Snake (rắn) Snake () 9 to 11 a.m.
7 ng5 go uma o ngọ Horse (ngựa) Horse () 11 a.m. to 1 p.m.
8 wèi mei6 mi or bi hitsuji mi mùi Goat (dê) Goat () 1 to 3 p.m.
9 shēn san1 shin saru shin thân Monkey (khỉ) Monkey () 3 to 5 p.m.
10 yǒu jau5 tori yu dậu Rooster (gà) Rooster () 5 to 7 p.m.
11 seot1 jutsu inu sul tuất Dog (chó) Dog () 7 to 9 p.m.
12 hài hoi6 gai i hae hợi Pig (lợn/heo) Pig () 9 to 11 p.m.

Conversion tables[change | edit source]

Tables show specific years in the context of a repeating sexagenary cycle.

1804–1923[change | edit source]

1924–2043[change | edit source]

Related pages[change | edit source]

References[change | edit source]

  1. Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric. (2005). "Jikkan-jūnishi" in Japan Encyclopedia, p. 420.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Latham, Lance. (1998). Standard C Date/Time Library: Programming the World's Calendars and Clocks, p. 378.
  3. Nussbaum, "Calendar" at pp. 98-99.
  4. Nussbaum, "Jūnishi" at pp. 436-437.
  5. Sexagenary animal names may be translated into English in many ways. For example, the Vietnamese use cat instead of Rabbit.

Other websites[change | edit source]