Solvent

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
English Wiktionary
The English Wiktionary has a dictionary definition (meanings of a word) for: solvent

A solvent is a liquid that becomes a solution by dissolving a solid, liquid, or gaseous solute. The most common solvent in everyday life is water.

Most other commonly-used solvents are organic (carbon-containing) chemicals. These are called organic solvents. Solvents usually have a low boiling point and evaporate easily or can be removed by distillation, thereby leaving the dissolved substance behind. Solvents should therefore not react chemically with the dissolved compounds - they have to be inert. Solvents can also be used to extract soluble compounds from a mixture, the most common example is the brewing of coffee or tea with hot water. Solvents are usually clear and colorless liquids and many have a characteristic smell. The concentration of a solution is the amount of compound that is dissolved in a certain volume of solvent. The solubility is the maximal amount of compound that is soluble in a certain volume of solvent at a specified temperature.

Common uses for organic solvents are in dry cleaning (e.g. tetrachloroethylene), as paint thinners (e.g. toluene, turpentine), as nail polish removers and glue solvents (acetone, methyl acetate, ethyl acetate), in spot removers (e.g. hexane, petrol ether), in detergents (citrus terpenes), in perfumes (ethanol), and in chemical syntheses. The use of inorganic solvents is typically limited to research chemistry and some technological processes.

Chronic health effects[change | change source]

Some solvents including chloroform and benzene (an ingredient of gasoline) are carcinogenic. Many others can damage internal organs like the liver, the kidneys, or the brain.

General precautions[change | change source]

  • Avoiding the generation of solvent vapors by working in a fume hood, local exhaust ventilation (LEV), or a well ventilated area
  • Keeping the storage containers tightly closed
  • Never using open flames near flammable solvents, use of electrical heating instead
  • Never flush flammable solvents down the drain to avoid explosions and fires
  • Avoiding the inhalation of solvent vapors
  • Avoiding contact of the solvent with the skin – many solvents are easily absorbed through the skin. They also tend to dry the skin and may cause sores and wounds.

Properties table of common solvents[change | change source]

The solvents are grouped into non-polar, polar aprotic, and polar protic solvents and ordered by increasing polarity. The polarity is given as the Dielectric constant. The density of nonpolar solvents that are heavier than water is bolded.

Solvent Chemical Formula Boiling point Dielectric constant Density
Non-Polar Solvents
Hexane CH3-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH3 69 °C 2.0 0.655 g/ml
Benzene C6H6 80 °C 2.3 0.879 g/ml
Toluene C6H5-CH3 111 °C 2.4 0.867 g/ml
Diethyl ether CH3CH2-O-CH2-CH3 35 °C 4.3 0.713 g/ml
Chloroform CHCl3 61 °C 4.8 1.498 g/ml
Ethyl acetate CH3-C(=O)-O-CH2-CH3 77 °C 6.0 0.894 g/ml
Dichloromethane CH2Cl2 40 °C 9.1 1.326 g/ml
Polar Aprotic Solvents
1,4-Dioxane /-CH2-CH2-O-CH2-CH2-O-\ 101 °C 2.3 1.033 g/ml
Tetrahydrofuran (THF) /-CH2-CH2-O-CH2-CH2-\ 66 °C 7.5 0.886 g/ml
Acetone CH3-C(=O)-CH3 56 °C 21 0.786 g/ml
Acetonitrile (MeCN) CH3-C≡N 82 °C 37 0.786 g/ml
Dimethylformamide (DMF) H-C(=O)N(CH3)2 153 °C 38 0.944 g/ml
Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) CH3-S(=O)-CH3 189 °C 47 1.092 g/ml
Polar Protic Solvents
Acetic acid CH3-C(=O)OH 118 °C 6.2 1.049 g/ml
n-Butanol CH3-CH2-CH2-CH2-OH 118 °C 18 0.810 g/ml
Isopropanol CH3-CH(-OH)-CH3 82 °C 18 0.785 g/ml
n-Propanol CH3-CH2-CH2-OH 97 °C 20 0.803 g/ml
Ethanol CH3-CH2-OH 79 °C 24 0.789 g/ml
Methanol CH3-OH 65 °C 33 0.791 g/ml
Formic acid H-C(=O)OH 100 °C 58 1.21 g/ml
Water H-O-H 100 °C 80 1.000 g/ml

Other websites[change | change source]