Spanking

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The painting "Mädchenschule" (girls' school) was done in 1789, by Adam Johann Braun. It shows a girl being spanked by a nun.

Spanking is hitting the buttocks of another person to cause them pain. Spanking normally involves one person hitting the buttocks of another person with an open hand.

Spanking is used to punish children and teenagers for unacceptable behavior. Historically, boys have been more frequently spanked than girls.[1][2][3][4][5]

Usually in a spanking, the child lies across the parent's lap, and the parent brings their open hand down upon the child's buttocks. At other times, the youngster might be told to bend over, or lie face down across a bed. Spankings may be given over the trousers, over the underwear, or on the bare buttocks.

The American Academy of Pediatrics is a group of medical doctors who work with children. They have said that spanking is not a good way to help children learn how to behave.  They say that it can easily turn into child abuse. [6]

Dr. Elizabeth T. Gershoff is a scientist who studies spanking by parents.[7] She has said that many studies done over many years show that spanking does not work. She has said that the science shows that spanking does not teach children good behavior or to obey their parents. In fact, she said that children who are spanked obey their parents less as time goes on.[8] Dr. Gershoff said that spanking is "violent" and should be stopped. In 2012, a Canadian team of scientists also said that spanking does not work. They said that over time, spanked children become more aggressive.[9] Murray Straus is another scientist studying spanking of children. He has said that there is new research showing that spanked children commit more crimes when they grow up. He said that this was so even if their parents were "loving" to them.[10]

Many scientists have looked at the question of what happens to spanked children. A small number of scientists have claimed that there is no harm from spanking.[7] Other scientists say that "over 100" studies have shown that spanking can be harmful to children.[11] They say that spanking harms children's growth. They also say that children who are spanked grow up to have more mental illnesses. They say that no study has shown any good to come from spanking.[8][11] When children are asked how they feel when they are spanked, many say that it makes them feel sad, angry, and afraid.[12] Young children in the United Kingdom who got spanked said things like, “it feels like someone banged you with a hammer” and “it hurts and it’s painful inside – it’s like breaking your bones”.[13] Scientists at the University of Manitoba in Canada found that children who were hit even "sometimes" suffered more mental illnesses when they grew up. They could have different kinds of mental illnesses: long-lasting sad or discouraged feelings and a loss of pleasure and interest in life (depression), a lot of fear and worry (anxiety), racing thoughts that are hard to control and acting without thinking (mania), or a need to take drugs or alcohol to feel well (drug and alcohol abuse).[14] Other scientists have discovered that spanking children often can make their brains grow less than they should.[15] These children end up less able to think clearly. They also try to hurt others more.[16]

Some groups of people have said that spanking is violent and goes against human rights.[7][17][18] They are people like lawyers, social workers, and politicians. Spanking a person under the age of 18 is now against the law in more than 40 countries. Some of those countries are Brazil, Germany, Israel, Argentina, Sweden, Netherlands, Spain, Poland, New Zealand, Kenya, and Costa Rica.[19]

References[change | change source]

  1. Elder, G.H.; Bowerman C.E. (1963). "Family structure and child rearing patterns: the effect of family size and sex composition". American Sociological Review 28 (6): 891–905. doi:10.2307/2090309 .
  2. Gelles, Richard J.; Straus, Murray A.; Smith, Christine (1995). Physical Violence in American Families: risk factors and adaptations to violence in 8,145 families. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction. ISBN 1560008288 .
  3. Jacklin, Carol Nagy; Maccoby, Eleanor E. (1978). The Psychology of Sex Differences. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. p. 332. ISBN 0804709742 .
  4. MacDonald, A.P. (August 1971). "Internal-external locus of control: parental antecedents". Journal of consulting and clinical psychology 37 (1): 141–147. doi:10.1037/h0031281 . PMID 5565616 .
  5. Straus, Murray A. (1971). "Some social antecedents of physical punishment: a linkage theory interpretation". Journal of Marriage and the Family 33 (4): 658–663. doi:10.2307/349438 .
  6. "Guidance for Effective Discipline". Pediatrics (American Academy of Pediatrics) 101 (4): 723-728. 1 April 1998. http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/101/4/723.full. Retrieved February 2015.
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 Smith, Brendan L. (April 2012). "The Case Against Spanking". Monitor on Psychology (American Psychological Association) 43 (4): 60. http://www.apa.org/monitor/2012/04/spanking.aspx. Retrieved 8 February 2015.
  8. 8.0 8.1 Gershoff, Elizabeth T. (September 2013). "Spanking and Child Development: We Know Enough Now to Stop Hitting Our Children". Child Development Perspectives (The Society for Research in Child Development) 7 (3): 133-137. doi:10.1111/cdep.12038 . http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3768154/. Retrieved 27 January 2015.
  9. Rochman, Bonnie (6 February 2012). "Why Spanking Doesn’t Work". Time. http://healthland.time.com/2012/02/06/why-spanking-doesnt-work/.
  10. "College students more likely to be lawbreakers if spanked as children". Science Daily. 22 November 2013 . http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/11/131122103621.htm.
  11. 11.0 11.1 French, Cameron (7 February 2012). "Spanking kids can cause long-term harm: Canada study". Reuters. http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/02/07/us-spanking-idUSTRE8161R220120207.
  12. Dobbs, T.A.; Smith, A.B.; Taylor, N.J. (July 2006). "'No, we don’t get a say, children just suffer the consequences': Children talk about family discipline". International Journal of Children’s Rights 14: 137-156. doi:10.1163/157181806777922694 . http://www.researchgate.net/publication/249570179_No_We_Don%27t_Get_a_Say_Children_Just_Suffer_the_Consequences_Children_Talk_about_Family_Discipline. Retrieved 29 January 2015.
  13. Willow, Carolyne; Hyder, Tina (1998). It Hurts You Inside: Children talking about smacking. Jessica Kingsley Publishers. ISBN 1905818610 . http://books.google.com/books/about/It_Hurts_You_Inside.html?id=lgj3V4pTG-EC .
  14. Smith, Michael (2 July 2012). "Spanking Kids Leads to Adult Mental Illnesses". ABC News. http://abcnews.go.com/Health/spanking-kids-leads-adult-mental-illnesses/story?id=16695697.
  15. Kovac, Sarah (23 July 2014). "Spanking the gray matter out of our kids". CNN. http://www.cnn.com/2014/07/23/health/effects-spanking-brain/.
  16. "Spanking children slows cognitive development and increases risk of criminal behavior, expert says". Science Daily. 11 December 2013. http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/12/131211103958.htm.
  17. Cook, Eliza; Kopko, Kimberley (2014). Why Spanking Should Be Discouraged. Cornell University, College of Human Ecology. http://www.human.cornell.edu/pam/outreach/parenting/research/upload/Spanking-Research-Brief.pdf. Retrieved 27 January 2015.
  18. Abolishing corporal punishment of children: Questions and answers. France: Council of Europe. December 2007. p. 7. ISBN 978-92-871-6310-3 . http://www.coe.int/t/dg3/children/pdf/QuestionAnswer_en.pdf.
  19. "States with full abolition". Global Initiative to End All Corporal Punishment of Children. http://www.endcorporalpunishment.org/pages/progress/prohib_states.html. Retrieved January 2015.