Statistical hypothesis test
A statistical hypothesis test is a method used in statistics. It helps you describe the results you get from an experiment. The hypothesis test tells you the likelihood that the result could be got by chance.
Statistical hypothesis tests answer the question: Assuming that the null hypothesis is true, what is the probability of getting a value for the test statistic that is at least as extreme as the value that was actually observed?.
So, for example, if the result would only happen by chance 5% of the time, then the experimental hypothesis is supported to the 95% level.