|Classification and external resources|
The Suicide by Édouard Manet 1877–1881
Suicide is when a person chooses to kill himself or herself. When someone kills himself, people say that he has "committed suicide". When a person thinks about killing themselves, the person is said to be suicidal.
There are many reasons why a person might think about committing suicide. Most people who are suicidal have some type of mental condition or illness. They may have a chronic condition, which means it has been going on for a long time. But it may be an acute condition – which means the first symptoms of mental illness happened rather quickly.
Depression which leads to suicidal thoughts may also be caused by stress, and events in a person's life. Losing a job, having an physical illness or being a victim of a crime or natural disaster may also cause depression. Feelings of loneliness caused by not having family or friends can be risk factors for suicide, there are also many others.
Suicide is one of the top three causes of death for young people aged 15–35 years-old and the second leading cause of death for college students. Every 3 seconds a person somewhere in the world attempts to kill themselves and every 40 seconds some commits suicide. For every suicide at least six other people are seriously affected.(WHO 2000)
Although depression is the main factor in suicide, it is also treatable and suicide is often preventable.
- 1 Risk factors
- 2 Protective factors
- 3 Prevention
- 4 Epidemiology
- 5 Methods
- 6 Views of suicide
- 7 Suicide as a weapon
- 8 Related pages
- 9 Other websites
- 10 References
Risk factors[change | change source]
Mental disorders[change | change source]
Most people who commit suicide have a mental disorder, the rates vary, according to study, between 85%-95%. Depressive disorders account for about 80% of these numbers, schizophrenia 10% and dementia and delirium about 5%. Among those who have a mental disorder, 25% also have alcohol abuse issues. People who abuse alcohol have a 50% greater risk of suicide compared to those who do not.
Emotions[change | change source]
- Hopelessness: the feeling that there is no prospect of improvement in one's situation---is a strong indicator of suicide.
- Perceived burdensomeness: when a person feels that they are a burden to others such as one's family, is often coupled with hopelessness
- Loneliness: whether a person just feels lonely or they actually are alone. A lack of social support such as family and friends, a feeling of not belonging or fitting in, and living alone.
Substance abuse[change | change source]
Substance abuse is the second most common reason for feeling suicidal or dying from it. Only two serious mental illnesses; depression and bipolar disorder cause more harm. People who have a short history of drug abuse as well as long time drug users are both a suicide risk. When a drug abuser is also sufffering from great sadness or grief, suicide is even more common. More than half of suicides are at least partly due to alcohol or drug use. About one-fourth of suicides are committed by those sick with drug addiction or alcoholism. In teenagers and youth, the percent is even higher.
Problem gambling[change | change source]
Early onset of problem gambling increases the lifetime risk of suicide, with gambling-related suicide attempts usually made by older people with gambling problems. Substance use and mental disorders increase the risk of suicide in people with problem gambling.
Medical conditions[change | change source]
There is a link between suicidality and medical conditions, including chronic pain, mild brain injury, (MBI) or traumatic brain injury (TBI). The feelings of wanting to commit suicide lasted even after adjusting for depressive illness and alcohol abuse. In patients with more than one medical condition the risk was higher.
Problems with sleeping, such as insomnia and sleep apnea may be risk factors for depression and suicide. In some instances the sleep disturbance itself may be the risk factor independent of depression.
People being treated for mood disorders should receive a medical evaluation. This should include a physical examination and various laboratory tests. This is done to rule out mood disorders caused by medical conditions and also to insure safety if medications are prescribed for treatment.Many medical conditions can cause psychiatric symptoms.
Biology[change | change source]
- Serotonin is a vital brain neurotransmitter; in those who have attempted suicide it has been found that they have lower serotonin levels, and people who have completed suicide have the lowest levels.This has been found to be a risk factor for suicide independent of a history of a major depression "indicating that it is involved in the predisposition to suicide in many psychiatric disorders."
- Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF): is a protein in the nerve growth factor family produced by activated brain cells called microglia, and also in skeletal muscles. Problems with how BDNF works may be a factor in several mood disorders linked with suicidal behavior, including major depressive disorder studies of suicide victims have shown markedly reduced levels of BDNF in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, regardless of psychiatric diagnosis.
Genetic inheritance accounts for roughly 30–50% of the variance in suicide risk between individuals. Having a parent who has committed suicide is a strong predictor of suicide attempts. Epigenetics, the study of changes in genetic expression in response to environmental factors which do not alter the underlying DNA, may also play a role in determining suicide risk.
Media coverage[change | change source]
How the media shows news stories of suicide may have a negative effect and trigger the possibility of copycat suicides, also known as the Werther effect. This risk is greater in teenagers and young adults who may often romantacize death. The opposite of the Werther effect is the Papageno effect in which coverage of effective coping mechanisms and coping in adverse circumstances, may have protective effects.
Others[change | change source]
There are a number of other risk factors, availability of a means to commit the act, family history of suicide, previous head injury,unemployment, poverty, homelessness, and discrimination, a history of childhood physical or sexual abuse, or having spent time in foster care.
Protective factors[change | change source]
Protective factors help the effects of suicidal thinking and the risk of a person dying by suicide. These factors can be internal, such as a a persons personal strengths and beliefs, or external such as their relationships and life situation. Protective factors are as important to identify as risk factors. Just as risk factors can be reduced protective factors can be increased. These factors can include:
- Personal strengths and skills such as handling stress, problem solving
- Social support from strong connections with family and friends
- Religious and cultural beliefs that that value life
- Restricted access to highly lethal means of suicide
- Having someone who helps them get the help they need
- Easy access to quality care for mental, physical, and substance abuse disorders
- Reasons for living
Prevention[change | change source]
Suicide prevention tries to reduce the number of suicides by using protective measures. Some ways limit access to the most common ways to commit suicide. These include taking away guns, poisons and drugs. Studies have shown that good treatment of depression and alcohol and drug abuse can reduce suicide rates. So does follow-up contact with those who have made a suicide attempt.
In many countries, people who are at high risk of hurting themselves, can check themselves into a hospital emergency department. This may also be done on an involuntary basis by police, doctors or judges. The person will be placed on suicide watch until a doctor or mental health professional decides whether inpatient care at a mental health care facility is needed.
"SOS Signs of Suicide" is a suicide prevention program used in secondary schools for students between 13 to 17-years-old. The program uses both education about suicide and screening for suicide risk. There are fewer suicide attempts in students who have taken part in the program compared to those who have not.
A suicide risk assessment uses various methods to examine a person's potential to attempt suicide. An adequate assessment is critical to prevent the possibility of a completed suicide and is the first step in devising an adequate treatment plan. Even though a suicide risk assessment is very important in helping save the life of a suicidal person, they are usually not done. Many mental health care workers have little or no training in how to do a suicide risk assessment.
Epidemiology[change | change source]
Worldwide suicide rates have increased by 60% in the past 45 years, mainly in the developing countries and is currently the tenth leading cause of death with about a million people dying by suicide annually, a global mortality rate of 16 suicides per 100,000 people, or a suicide every 40 seconds.
According to 2007 data, suicides in the U.S. outnumber homicides by nearly 2 to 1. Suicide ranks as the 11th leading cause of death in the country, ahead of liver disease and Parkinson's disease. Suicide rates vary a great deal across the world. Lithuania has the highest suicide rate.
30% of deaths by suicide are by people who are intoxicated.(Source:SAMSHA)
Methods[change | change source]
The leading methods of suicide are not the same in every country. The leading methods in different regions include hanging, pesticide poisoning, and firearms. A 2008 review of 56 countries based on WHO mortality data found that hanging was the most common method in most of the countries, accounting for 53% of the male suicides and 39% of the female suicides. Worldwide 30% of suicides are from pesticides. The use of this method however varies markedly from 4% in Europe to more than 50% in the Pacific region. In the United States 52% of suicides involve the use of firearms. Asphyxiation (such as with a suicide bag) and poisoning are fairly common as well. Together they comprised about 40% of U.S. suicides. Other methods of suicide include blunt force trauma (jumping from a building or bridge, self-defenestrating, stepping in front of a train, or car collision. Exsanguination or bloodletting, intentional drowning, self-immolation, electrocution, and intentional starvation are other suicide methods. Individuals may also intentionally provoke another person into administering lethal action against them, as in suicide by cop.
Views of suicide[change | change source]
The Abrahamic religions, (like Christianity, Judaism, and Islam) think that life is sacred. They believe that by killing yourself, you are murdering what God has made, which is bad. For this reason, a person who commits suicide is believed to go to hell by many followers of Abrahamic religions.
The Dharmic and Taoist religions (like Buddhism, Hinduism, Jainism, Taoism, Confucianism, and Shinto) believe that someone who commits suicide will be reincarnated in the next life with a less enlightened soul. However, many people of these religions are more likely to commit suicide because they believe that there will be a next life.[source?] They think that by committing suicide, they may have a better chance in the next life.[source?]
Suicide as a weapon[change | change source]
There are a few very famous examples of suicide attacks in history. The Kamikazes were one example. They were Japanese fighter pilots during WWII, who would try to kill American soldiers (but would also kill themselves in the process) by crashing their planes into American ships. The September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks on the United States were also done by suicide attackers, who flew planes into the World Trade Center buildings and the Pentagon. 
Related pages[change | change source]
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Suicide|
Other websites[change | change source]
- Live Through This
- Landmark Study Finds Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale Predicts Suicide Attempt
- Rating Scale Successfully Predicts Suicide Attempts
References[change | change source]
- The word suicide comes from the Latin words sui caedere, which means "to kill oneself".
- Benjamin James Sadock, M.D., Virginia Alcott Sadock: Kapalan and Sadock's Concise Textbook of Clinical Psychiatry. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; Third edition (2008) ISBN 0781787467
- Whitlock J, Knox KL (July 2007). "The relationship between self-injurious behavior and suicide in a young adult population". Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 161 (7): 634–40. doi:10.1001/archpedi.161.7.634. PMID 17606825.
- American Psychiatric Association: American Psychiatric Association Practice Guidelines for the Treatment of Psychiatric Disorders: Compendium 2006. American Psychiatric Publishing; 1 edition (2006) pp.1410-1411 ISBN 0890423857
- Jahn DR, Cukrowicz KC, Linton K, Prabhu F (March 2011). "The mediating effect of perceived burdensomeness on the relation between depressive symptoms and suicide ideation in a community sample of older adults". Aging Ment Health 15 (2): 214–20. doi:10.1080/13607863.2010.501064. PMID 20967639.
- You, S.; Van Orden, K. A.; Conner, K. R. (2010). "Social connections and suicidal thoughts and behavior". Psychology of Addictive Behaviors 25 (1): 180–184. doi:10.1037/a0020936. PMC 3066301. PMID 21142333. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3066301.
- Stravynski A, Boyer R (2001). "Loneliness in relation to suicide ideation and parasuicide: a population-wide study". Suicide Life Threat Behav 31 (1): 32–40. PMID 11326767.
- Vanderhorst RK, McLaren S (November 2005). "Social relationships as predictors of depression and suicidal ideation in older adults". Aging Ment Health 9 (6): 517–25. doi:10.1080/13607860500193062. PMID 16214699.
- D., PhD Frank, Jerome; Levin, Jerome D; S., PhD Piccirilli, Richard; Perrotto, Richard S; Culkin, Joseph (28 Sep 2001). Introduction to chemical dependency counseling. Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson. pp. 150–152. ISBN 978-0-7657-0289-0. http://books.google.com/?id=felzn3Ntd-cC&pg=RA1-PA151.
- Giner L, Carballo JJ, Guija JA, et al. (2007). "Psychological autopsy studies: the role of alcohol use in adolescent and young adult suicides". Int J Adolesc Med Health 19 (1): 99–113. PMID 17458329.
- Fadem, Barbara (1 Dec 2003). Behavioral science in medicine. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams Wilkins. p. 217. ISBN 978-0-7817-3669-5. http://books.google.com/?id=KB-g-oBfApsC.
- Moreyra, P., Ibanez A., Saiz-Ruiz J., Nissenson K., Blanco C. (2000). "Review of the phenomenology, etiology and treatment of pathological gambling". German Journal of Psychiatry 3: 37–52.
- Pallanti, Stefano; Rossi, Nicolò Baldini; Hollander, Eric (2006). "11. Pathological Gambling". In Hollander, Eric; Stein, Dan J.. Clinical manual of impulse-control disorders. American Psychiatric Pub. pp. 251–289. ISBN 978-1-58562-136-1. http://books.google.com/books?id=u2wVP8KJJtcC&pg=PA251.
- Volberg, R.A. (2002). "The epidemiology of pathological gambling". Psychiatric Annals 32: 171–8.
- Kaminer Y, Burleson JA, Jadamec A (September 2002). "Gambling behavior in adolescent substance abuse". Subst Abus 23 (3): 191–8. doi:10.1080/08897070209511489. PMID 12444352. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/08897070209511489?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub%3dpubmed.
- Kausch O (2003). "Suicide attempts among veterans seeking treatment for pathological gambling". Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 64 (9): 1031–8. doi:10.4088/JCP.v64n0908. PMID 14628978.
- Kausch O (2003). "Patterns of substance abuse among treatment-seeking pathological gamblers". Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 25 (4): 263–70. doi:10.1016/S0740-5472(03)00117-X. PMID 14693255.
- Ladd, G. T., Petry N. M. (2003) A comparison of pathological gamblers with and without substance abuse treatment histories. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 11, 202-9.
- Ilgen MA, Zivin K, McCammon RJ, Valenstein M (2008). "Pain and suicidal thoughts, plans and attempts in the United States". Gen Hosp Psychiatry 30 (6): 521–7. doi:10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2008.09.003. PMC 2601576. PMID 19061678. http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0163-8343(08)00164-3.
- Simpson GK, Tate RL (August 2007). "Preventing suicide after traumatic brain injury: implications for general practice". Med. J. Aust. 187 (4): 229–32. PMID 17708726. http://www.mja.com.au/public/issues/187_04_200807/sim11240_fm.html.
- Teasdale TW, Engberg AW (October 2001). "Suicide after traumatic brain injury: a population study". J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatr. 71 (4): 436–40. doi:10.1136/jnnp.71.4.436. PMC 1763534. PMID 11561024. http://jnnp.bmj.com/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=11561024.
- Druss B, Pincus H (May 2000). "Suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in general medical illnesses". Arch. Intern. Med. 160 (10): 1522–6. doi:10.1001/archinte.160.10.1522. PMID 10826468. http://archinte.ama-assn.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=10826468.
- Braden JB, Sullivan MD (December 2008). "Suicidal thoughts and behavior among adults with self-reported pain conditions in the national comorbidity survey replication". J Pain 9 (12): 1106–15. doi:10.1016/j.jpain.2008.06.004. PMC 2614911. PMID 19038772. http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1526-5900(08)00624-X.
- Ribeiro JD, Pease JL, Gutierrez PM, et al. (October 2011). "Sleep problems outperform depression and hopelessness as cross-sectional and longitudinal predictors of suicidal ideation and behavior in young adults in the military". J Affect Disord 136 (3): 743–50. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2011.09.049. PMID 22032872.
- Bernert RA, Joiner TE, Cukrowicz KC, Schmidt NB, Krakow B (September 2005). "Suicidality and sleep disturbances". Sleep 28 (9): 1135–41. PMID 16268383.
- Janis Cutler, Eric Marcus. Psychiatry Oxford University Press, USA; 2 edition (2010) p.82 ISBN 0195372743
- B.J. Casey, Rebecca M. Jones,a and Todd A. Hareb. The Adolescent Brain. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2008 March; 1124: 111–126. doi: 10.1196/annals.1440.010 PMCID: PMC2475802 NIHMSID: NIHMS56148
- Krishnan, V.; Nestler, E. (2008). "The molecular neurobiology of depression". Nature 455 (7215): 894–902. doi:10.1038/nature07455. PMC 2721780. PMID 18923511.
- Phillips J, Murray P, Kirk P., The biology of disease; pp.5-9 ISBN 978-0-632-05404-6
- David M. Stoff, Elizabeth J. Susman: Developmental psychobiology of aggression; Cambridge University Press (2005) ISBN 0-521-82601-2
- S. Hossein Fatemi, Paula J. Clayton:The medical basis of psychiatry. p.562 Springer(1994);, ISBN 978-1-58829-917-8
- J. John Mann, M.D., Neurobiological Aspects of Suicide
- Roberto Tatarelli, Maurizio Pompili, Paolo Girardi: Suicide in psychiatric disorders. p.266; Nova Science Pub Inc;(2007) ISBN 1-60021-738-9
- Alan F. Schatzberg: The American Psychiatric Publishing textbook of mood disorders. p.489; American Psychiatric Publishing; (2005) ISBN 1-58562-151-X
- BDNF brain-derived neurotrophic factor [ Homo sapiens ]Gene ID: 627, updated on 9-Sep-2012:
- Castrén E, Rantamäki T. Dev The role of BDNF and its receptors in depression and antidepressant drug action: Reactivation of developmental plasticity. Neurobiol. 2010 Apr;70(5):289-97. PMID 20186711
- Molendijk ML, Bus BA, Spinhoven P, et al. Serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in major depressive disorder: state-trait issues, clinical features and pharmacological treatment. Mol Psychiatry. 2011 Nov;16(11):1088-95. doi: 10.1038/mp.2010.98. Epub 2010 Sep 21. PMID: 20856249
- Sher L. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor and suicidal behavior. QJM. 2011 May;104(5):455-8. PMID 21051476
- Alan F. Schatzberg, Charles B: The American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Psychopharmacology. pp-918-919. American Psychiatric Publishers Inc; 4 edition (2009) ISBN 1585623091
- Brezo J, Klempan T, Turecki G (June 2008). "The genetics of suicide: a critical review of molecular studies". Psychiatr. Clin. North Am. 31 (2): 179–203. doi:10.1016/j.psc.2008.01.008. PMID 18439443.
- Goldsmith, Sara K. (2002). Reducing suicide: a national imperative. Washington, D.C: National Academies Press. p. 141. ISBN 0-309-08321-4.
- Agerbo E, Nordentoft M, Mortensen PB (July 2002). "Familial, psychiatric, and socioeconomic risk factors for suicide in young people: nested case-control study". BMJ 325 (7355): 74. PMC 117126. PMID 12114236.
- Qin P, Agerbo E, Mortensen PB (October 2002). "Suicide risk in relation to family history of completed suicide and psychiatric disorders: a nested case-control study based on longitudinal registers". Lancet 360 (9340): 1126–30. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(02)11197-4. PMID 12387960.
- Krishnan, V.; Nestler, E. (2009). "Epigenetics in Suicide and Depression". Biological Psychiatry 66 (9): 812–813. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2009.08.033. PMC 2770810. PMID 19833253.
- Trygve Tollefsbol: Handbook of Epigenetics: The New Molecular and Medical Genetics. p.562: Elsevier Science;(2010);ISBN 0-12-375709-6
- Arturas Petronis: Brain, Behavior and Epigenetics, p.61 Springer (2011);ISBN 3-642-17425-6
- Niederkrotenthaler T, Herberth A, Sonneck G (2007). "[The "Werther-effect": legend or reality?]" (in German). Neuropsychiatr 21 (4): 284–90. PMID 18082110.
- Stack S (April 2003). "Media coverage as a risk factor in suicide". J Epidemiol Community Health 57 (4): 238–40. doi:10.1136/jech.57.4.238. PMC 1732435. PMID 12646535. http://jech.bmj.com/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=12646535.
- O'Carroll PW, Potter LB (April 1994). "Suicide contagion and the reporting of suicide: recommendations from a national workshop. United States Department of Health and Human Services". MMWR Recomm Rep 43 (RR–6): 9–17. PMID 8015544. http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/00031539.htm.
- Thomas H. Ollendick, Carolyn S. Schroeder: Encyclopedia of clinical child and pediatric psychology, p.61; Springer;(2003) ISBN 0-306-47490-5
- Marion Crook: Out of the darkness: teens and suicide p.56 Arsenal Pulp Press (2004) ISBN 1-55152-141-5
- Stack S (April 2005). "Suicide in the media: a quantitative review of studies based on non-fictional stories". Suicide Life Threat Behav 35 (2): 121–33. doi:10.1521/suli.188.8.131.52877. PMID 15843330.
- Niederkrotenthaler T, Voracek M, Herberth A et al. (September 2010). "Role of media reports in completed and prevented suicide: Werther v. Papageno effects". Br J Psychiatry 197 (3): 234–43. doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.109.074633. PMID 20807970. http://bjp.rcpsych.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=20807970.
- Teasdale TW, Engberg AW (October 2001). "Suicide after traumatic brain injury: a population study". J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatr. 71 (4): 436–40. doi:10.1136/jnnp.71.4.436. PMC 1763534. PMID 11561024.
- Simpson G, Tate R (December 2007). "Suicidality in people surviving a traumatic brain injury: prevalence, risk factors and implications for clinical management". Brain Inj 21 (13-14): 1335–51. doi:10.1080/02699050701785542. PMID 18066936.
- Qin P, Agerbo E, Mortensen PB (April 2003). "Suicide risk in relation to socioeconomic, demographic, psychiatric, and familial factors: a national register-based study of all suicides in Denmark, 1981–1997". Am J Psychiatry 160 (4): 765–72. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.160.4.765. PMID 12668367.
- Dube SR, Anda RF, Felitti VJ, Chapman DP, Williamson DF, Giles WH (December 2001). "Childhood abuse, household dysfunction, and the risk of attempted suicide throughout the life span: findings from the Adverse Childhood Experiences Study". JAMA 286 (24): 3089–96. PMID 11754674.
- "Child Protection and Child Outcomes: Measuring the Effects of Foster Care" (PDF). http://www.mit.edu/~jjdoyle/doyle_fosterlt_march07_aer.pdf. Retrieved 2011-11-01.
- Koch, Wendy (2007-07-03). "Study: Troubled homes better than foster care". Usatoday.Com. http://www.usatoday.com/news/nation/2007-07-02-foster-study_N.htm. Retrieved 2011-11-01.
- Lawrence, CR; Carlson, EA; Egeland, B (2006). "The impact of foster care on development". Development and Psychopathology 18 (1): 57–76. doi:10.1017/S0954579406060044. PMID 16478552.
- Robert I. Simon: Preventing Patient Suicide: Clinical Assessment and Management American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc.; 1 edition (2010) pp.51-57 ISBN 1585629340
- Malone KM1, Oquendo MA, Haas GL, Ellis SP, et al. Protective factors against suicidal acts in major depression: reasons for living. Am J Psychiatry. 2000 Jul;157(7):1084-8. PMID 10873915
- World Health Organization: Suicide prevention (SUPRE)
- SAMSHA"S National Registry of Evidence-based Programs and Practices. SOS Signs of Suicide 
- Schmitz WM Jr1, Allen MH, Feldman BN, Gutin NJ, et al. Suicide Life Threat Behav. 2012 Jun;42(3):292-304. doi: 10.1111/j.1943-278X.2012.00090.x. Epub 2012 Apr 11.Preventing suicide through improved training in suicide risk assessment and care: an American Association of Suicidology Task Force report addressing serious gaps in U.S. mental health training. PMID 22494118
- Roberts A R., Monferrari I, Yeager, KR, Avoiding Malpractice Lawsuits by Following Risk Assessment and Suicide Prevention Guidelines
- "Suicide prevention". WHO Sites: Mental Health. World Health Organization. February 16, 2006. http://www.who.int/mental_health/prevention/suicide/suicideprevent/en/. Retrieved 2008-09-16.
- "2007 Data" (PDF). Suicide Prevention. Suicidology.org. 2007. http://www.suicidology.org/c/document_library/get_file?folderId=232&name=DLFE-232.pdf. Retrieved 2011-01-13.
- Ajdacic-Gross V, Weiss MG, Ring M et al. (September 2008). "Methods of suicide: international suicide patterns derived from the WHO mortality database". Bull. World Health Organ. 86 (9): 726–32. doi:10.2471/BLT.07.043489. PMC 2649482. PMID 18797649.
- Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta, et al. PDF (267 KB). Bulletin of the World Health Organization 86 (9): 726–732. September 2008. Accessed 2 August 2011. Archived 2 August 2011. See html version.
- The data can be seen here.
- O'Connor, Rory C.; Platt, Stephen; Gordon, Jacki, eds. (1 June 2011). International Handbook of Suicide Prevention: Research, Policy and Practice. John Wiley and Sons. pp. 34. ISBN 978-1-119-99856-3. http://books.google.com/books?id=3fDGLWQtwFkC&pg=PA34.
- Gunnell D, Eddleston M, Phillips MR, Konradsen F (2007). "The global distribution of fatal pesticide self-poisoning: systematic review". BMC Public Health 7: 357. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-7-357. PMC 2262093. PMID 18154668.
- "U.S. Suicide Statistics (2005)". http://www.suicide.org/suicide-statistics.html. Retrieved 2008-03-24.