Sundarbans National Park
|Sundarbans National Park|
|Bengali: সুন্দরবন জাতীয় উদ্যান Shundorbôn Jatio Uddan|
Mangrove trees in Sundarbans
|Location||South 24 Parganas, West Bengal, India|
|Governing body||Government of India, Government of West Bengal|
|Sundarbans National Park *|
|Inscription||1987 (11th Session)|
|* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List
** Region as classified by UNESCO
The Sundarbans National Park is a National Park, Tiger Reserve, and a Biosphere Reserve in the Sundarbans delta. It is in the Indian state of West Bengal. This area is densely covered by mangrove forests. It is one of the largest reserves for the Bengal tiger. It is also home to a variety of bird, reptile and invertebrate species, including the salt-water crocodile. On May 4, 1984 it was made a National Park.
There are seven main rivers and many watercourses forming a network of channels at this delta. They all run southward towards the sea. The coastal area has many mudflats. They are the right environment for mangroves.
The mangrove vegetation of Sundarbans has 64 plant species.  They can withstand estuarine conditions and large amounts of saline. In the month of April and May the flaming red leaves of the Genwa (Excoecaria agallocha) the crab-like red flowers of the Kankra (Bruguiera gymnorrhiza) and the yellow flowers of Khalsi (Aegiceras corniculatum) can be seen. Some of the other commonly found plants and trees in the park are Dhundal (or cannonball mangrove, Xylocarpus granatum), Passur (Xylocarpus mekongensis), Garjan (Rhizophora spp.), Sundari (Heritiera fomes) and Goran (Ceriops decandra).
The Sundarbans forest is home to more than 400 tigers. The Royal Bengal Tigers have developed a unique characteristic of swimming in the saline waters. They are famous for their man-eating tendencies. Tigers can be seen on the river banks sunbathing between November and February.
Some of the birds commonly found in this region are openbill storks, black-headed ibis, Water Hens, Coots, Pheasant-tailed Jacanas, Pariah Kites, Brahminy Kite, Marsh Harriers, Swamp Partridges, Red Junglefowls, Spotted Doves, Common Mynahs, Jungle Crows, Jungle Babblers, Cotton Teals, Herring Gulls, Caspian Terns, Gray Herons, brahminy ducks, Spot-billed Pelicans, Great Egrets, Night Herons, Common Snipes, Wood Sandpipers, Green Pigeons, Rose Ringed Parakeets, paradise-flycatchers, cormorants, Grey-headed Fish Eagles, White-bellied Sea Eagles, Seagulls, Common Kingfishers, Peregrine falcons, Woodpeckers, Whimbrels, Black-tailed Godwits, Little Stints, Eastern Knots, Curlews, Golden Plovers, Northern Pintails, White-eyed Pochards and Whistling teals.
Aqua fauna [change]
Some of the fish and amphibians found in the park are Sawfish, Butter Fish, Electric rays, Silver carp, Star Fish, Common Carp, King Crabs, Prawn, Shrimps, Gangetic Dolphins, Skipping Frogs, Common Toads and Tree Frogs.
The Sundarbans National Park houses a large number of reptiles as well, including estuarine crocodiles, chameleons, monitor lizards, turtles, including Olive Ridley, hawksbill, and green turtles. Snakes include pythons, King Cobras, rat snakes, Russell's vipers, Dog Faced Water Snakes, Chequered Killbacks, and Common Kraits.
Endangered species [change]
The endangered species that live in the Sundarbans are Royal Bengal Tiger, Saltwater Crocodile, River Terrapin, Olive Ridley Turtle, Gangetic dolphin, Ground Turtle, Hawks Bill Turtle and Mangrove horseshoe crab.
Related pages [change]
- "Natural site datasheet from WCMC". World Conservation Monitoring Centre. http://www.unep-wcmc.org/sites/wh/pdf/Sundarbans%20%5Bboth%5D.pdf.
- World Network of Biosphere Reserves (WNBR), "Sunderban"; retrieved 2012-7-18.