Sundarbans National Park

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Sundarbans National Park
Bengali: সুন্দরবন জাতীয় উদ্যান Shundorbôn Jatio Uddan
IUCN Category II (National Park)
Sundarban mangrove.jpg
Mangrove trees in Sundarbans
Map showing the location of Sundarbans National Park
Map showing the location of Sundarbans National Park
Location in West Bengal, India
Location South 24 Parganas, West Bengal, India
Coordinates 21°56′42″N 88°53′45″E / 21.945°N 88.89583°E / 21.945; 88.89583Coordinates: 21°56′42″N 88°53′45″E / 21.945°N 88.89583°E / 21.945; 88.89583
Area 1330.12
Established 1984
Governing body Government of India, Government of West Bengal
Sundarbans National Park *
Country India
Type Natural
Criteria ix, x
Reference 452
Region ** Asia-Pacific
Inscription history
Inscription 1987 (11th Session)

The Sundarbans National Park is a National Park, Tiger Reserve, and a Biosphere Reserve in the Sundarbans delta. It is in the Indian state of West Bengal. This area is densely covered by mangrove forests. It is one of the largest reserves for the Bengal tiger. It is also home to a variety of bird, reptile and invertebrate species, including the salt-water crocodile. On May 4, 1984 it was made a National Park.

There are seven main rivers and many watercourses forming a network of channels at this delta. They all run southward towards the sea. The coastal area has many mudflats. They are the right environment for mangroves.

Flora[change | change source]

The mangrove vegetation of Sundarbans has 64 plant species. [1] They can withstand estuarine conditions and large amounts of saline. In the month of April and May the flaming red leaves of the Genwa (Excoecaria agallocha) the crab-like red flowers of the Kankra (Bruguiera gymnorrhiza) and the yellow flowers of Khalsi (Aegiceras corniculatum) can be seen. Some of the other commonly found plants and trees in the park are Dhundal (or cannonball mangrove, Xylocarpus granatum), Passur (Xylocarpus mekongensis), Garjan (Rhizophora spp.), Sundari (Heritiera fomes) and Goran (Ceriops decandra).

Fauna[change | change source]

The Sundarbans forest is home to more than 400 tigers. The Royal Bengal Tigers have developed a unique characteristic of swimming in the saline waters. They are famous for their man-eating tendencies. Tigers can be seen on the river banks sunbathing between November and February.

Apart from the Royal Bengal Tiger there are also many Fishing Cats, Leopard Cats, Macaques, Wild Boar, Indian Grey Mongoose, Fox, Jungle Cat, Flying Fox, Pangolin, Chital.

Avifauna[change | change source]

Some of the birds commonly found in this region are openbill storks, black-headed ibis, Water Hens, Coots, Pheasant-tailed Jacanas, Pariah Kites, Brahminy Kite, Marsh Harriers, Swamp Partridges, Red Junglefowls, Spotted Doves, Common Mynahs, Jungle Crows, Jungle Babblers, Cotton Teals, Herring Gulls, Caspian Terns, Gray Herons, brahminy ducks, Spot-billed Pelicans, Great Egrets, Night Herons, Common Snipes, Wood Sandpipers, Green Pigeons, Rose Ringed Parakeets, paradise-flycatchers, cormorants, Grey-headed Fish Eagles, White-bellied Sea Eagles, Seagulls, Common Kingfishers, Peregrine falcons, Woodpeckers, Whimbrels, Black-tailed Godwits, Little Stints, Eastern Knots, Curlews, Golden Plovers, Northern Pintails, White-eyed Pochards and Whistling teals.

Aqua fauna[change | change source]

Some of the fish and amphibians found in the park are Sawfish, Butter Fish, Electric rays, Silver carp, Star Fish, Common Carp, King Crabs, Prawn, Shrimps, Gangetic Dolphins, Skipping Frogs, Common Toads and Tree Frogs.

Reptiles[change | change source]

The Sundarbans National Park houses a large number of reptiles as well, including estuarine crocodiles, chameleons, monitor lizards, turtles, including Olive Ridley, hawksbill, and green turtles. Snakes include pythons, King Cobras, rat snakes, Russell's vipers, Dog Faced Water Snakes, Chequered Killbacks, and Common Kraits.

Endangered species[change | change source]

The endangered species that live in the Sundarbans are Royal Bengal Tiger, Saltwater Crocodile, River Terrapin, Olive Ridley Turtle, Gangetic dolphin, Ground Turtle, Hawks Bill Turtle and Mangrove horseshoe crab.

Ecosystem[change | change source]

In 2001, Sunderban became a Biosphere Reserve. The ecosystem is recognized as part of UNESCO's Man and the Biosphere (MAB) Programme.[2]

Gallery[change | change source]

Related pages[change | change source]

References[change | change source]

Other websites[change | change source]

This article is about a World Heritage Site