|Empire in Middle east and Central Asia|
Flag of the Timurid dynasty[a]
|Language(s)||Chaghatai (initially, limited) & Persian (major, official)|
|- 1506–1507||Muzaffar Hussayn|
|- Founded by Timur||1370|
|- Samarkand conquered by Uzbeks under Muhammad Shaybani||1509|
|- Herat conquered by Shaybani||1507|
|- 1405 est.||4,400,000 km2 (1,698,849 sq mi)|
|a: Flag of the Timurid Empire according to the Catalan Atlas c. 1375|
The Timurids (Persian: تیموریان), who called themselves Gurkānī  (Persian: گوركانى), were a Persianate, Central Asian Sunni Muslim dynasty of Turco-Mongol lineage. The Timurid Empire included all of Iran, modern Afghanistan, and modern Central Asia, as well as large parts of contemporary Pakistan, Mesopotamia, Anatolia and the Caucasus. It was formed by the militant conqueror Timur (Tamerlane) in the 14th century.
References[change | change source]
- Turchin, Peter; Adams, Jonathan M.; Hall, Thomas D (December 2006). "East-West Orientation of Historical Empires". Journal of world-systems research 12 (2): 219–229. ISSN 1076–156x. http://jwsr.ucr.edu/archive/vol12/number2/pdf/jwsr-v12n2-tah.pdf. Retrieved 12 August 2010.
- Zahir ud-Din Mohammad (2002-09-10). Thackston, Wheeler M.. ed. The Baburnama: Memoirs of Babur, Prince and Emperor. Modern Library Classics. ISBN 0375761373. "Note: Gurkānī is the Persianized form of the Mongolian word "qürügän" ("son-in-law"), the title given to the dynasty's founder after his marriage into Genghis Khan's family."
- Note: Gurgān, Gurkhān, or Kurkhān; The meaning of Kurkhan is given in Clements Markham's publication of the reports of the contemporary witness Ruy González de Clavijo as "of the lineage of sovereign princes".
- Edward Balfour The Encyclopaedia Asiatica, Comprising North India, Eastern and Southern Asia, Cosmo Publications 1976, S. 460, S. 488, S. 897
- Maria Subtelny, "Timurids in Transition", BRILL; illustrated edition (2007-09-30). pg 40: "Nevertheless, in the complex process of transition, members of the Timurid dynasty and their Turko-Mongol supporters became acculturate by the surrounding Persinate millieu adopting Persian cultural models and tastes and acting as patrons of Persian culture, painting, architecture and music." pg 41: "The last members of the dynasty, notably Sultan-Abu Sa'id and Sultan-Husain, in fact came to be regarded as ideal Perso-Islamic rulers who develoted as much attention to agricultural development as they did to fostering Persianate court culture."
- B.F. Manz, "Tīmūr Lang", in Encyclopaedia of Islam, Online Edition, 2006
- Encyclopædia Britannica, "Timurid Dynasty", Online Academic Edition, 2007. (Quotation:...Turkic dynasty descended from the conqueror Timur (Tamerlane), renowned for its brilliant revival of artistic and intellectual life in Iran and Central Asia....Trading and artistic communities were brought into the capital city of Herat, where a library was founded, and the capital became the centre of a renewed and artistically brilliant Persian culture...)
- "Timurids". The Columbia Encyclopedia (Sixth). New York City: Columbia University. Retrieved on 8 November 2006.
- Encyclopædia Britannica article: Consolidation & expansion of the Indo-Timurids, Online Edition, 2007.