Union (American Civil War)
During the American Civil War, the Union meant the federal government of the United States, which was supported by the twenty free states and five border slave states. It was opposed by 11 Southern slave states. The Union states included the Western states of California, Oregon, and (after 1864) Nevada. They also included states usually thought to be part of the Midwest. However, the Union has been also often called "the North", both then and now.
The Union states were:
- "Avalon Project - The Inaugural Addresses of the Presidents". avalon.law.yale.edu. http://avalon.law.yale.edu/subject_menus/inaug.asp. Retrieved 7 June 2010.
- Current, Richard N. (1994). Lincoln's Loyalists: Union Soldiers from the Confederacy. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-508465-9.
- Mackey, Robert R. (2004). The UnCivil War: Irregular Warfare in the Upper South. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 0-8061-3624-3.