Waray-Waray

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Waray-Waray
Winaray
Native to  Philippines
Region Eastern Visayas
Native speakers 3.1 million; 5th most spoken native language in the Philippines[1]  (date missing)
Language family
Writing system Latin (Filipino variant);
Historically written in Baybayin
Official status
Official language in Regional language in the Philippines
Regulated by Commission on the Filipino Language
Language codes
ISO 639-2 war
ISO 639-3 war

Wáray-Wáray or Warai (commonly spelled as Waray; also Winaray or Lineyte-Samarnon) is a language spoken in the provinces of Samar, Leyte, and Biliran in the Philippines.

The Waraynon group of languages consists of Waray, Waray Sorsogon and Masbate Sorsogon. All the Warayan languages belong to the Visayan language family and are related to Cebuano and more closely to Hiligaynon and Masbatenyo.

Usage[change | change source]

Waray-Waray is one of the ten officially recognized regional languages in the Philippines and used in the local government. It is spoken throughout the islands especially in the Eastern Visayas region. But it is also spoken in some parts of Mindanao, Masbate, Sorsogon and Metro Manila where Warays went to. There is also a very small number of Filipinos abroad, especially in the United States, that speaks this language.

Sounds[change | change source]

The Waray language has sixteen consonants: /p, t, k, b, d, ɡ, m, n, ŋ, s, h, w, l, ɾ, j/. There are three main vowels: a [a], i [ɛ ~ i], and u [o ~ ʊ]. Consonants /d/ and /ɾ/ were once allophone but cannot interchange, like palaron (to be lucky) [from palad, palm (because someone's luck is seen in the palm] but not paladon and tagadiín (from where) [from diín, where] but not tagariín.

Numbers[change | change source]

Native numbers are used for numbers one through ten. From eleven onwards, Spanish numbers are exclusively used in Waray today, their native counterparts being almost unheard of by the majority of native speakers numbers (except for gatus for hundred and yukot for thousand). Some, specially the old ones, are spoken alongside the Spanish counterparts.

English Native Waray Borrowed from Spanish
One Usá Uno
Two Duhá Dos
Three Tuló Tres
Four Upat Kuwatro
Five Limá Singko
Six Unom Siez/says
Seven Pitó Siete/syete
Eight Waló Ocho/otso
Nine Siyám Nuebe/nueve
Ten Napúlô Diez
Eleven Napúlô kag usá Onse
Twenty Karuhaan Baynte
Thirty Katloan Trenta
Forty Kap-atan Kwuarenta
Fifty Kalim-an Singkwenta
Sixty Kaunman Siesenta
Seventy Kapitoan Setenta
Eighty Kawaloan Ochienta
Ninety Kasiaman Nobenta
One Hundred Usa ka Gatus Cien
One Thousand Usa ka Yukut Mil
One Million Usa ka milyun milyon

Some common words and phrases[change | change source]

Below are examples of the Waray spoken in Metropolitan Tacloban and the nearby areas:

  • Can you understand Waray?: Nakakaintindi / Nasabut ka hin Winaray? (hin or hiton)
  • Good morning (noon / afternoon / evening): Maupay nga aga (udto / kulop / gab-i)
  • Thank you: Salamat
  • I love you: Hinihigugma ko ikaw or Ginhihigugma ko ikaw or Pina-ura ta ikaw
  • Where are you from? : Taga diin ka? or Taga nga-in ka?
  • What is your name? : Ano it imo ngaran?
  • Who are you?: Hin-o ka?
  • How are you? : Kumusta ka na?
  • I'm fine / In God's will: Kalu-oy sa Dyos
  • How much is this? : Tag pira ini?
  • I like this / that: Karuyag ko ini / itun
  • I can't understand: Diri ako nakakaintindi or Diri ako nakakasabut
  • I don't know: Diri ako maaram or Ambot
  • What: Ano
  • Who: Hin-o
  • Where: Hain or Di-in
  • When (future): San-o
  • When (past): Kakan-o
  • Why: Kay-ano
  • How: Gin-aano?/Patiunan-o?
  • Yes: Oo
  • No: Dire or Diri
  • There: Adto or Didto or Ngad-to
  • Here: Didi or Nganhi or Din-hi
  • Up: Igbaw
  • Down: Ubos
  • Top: Baw-baw
  • Bottom: Ilarom or Sirong
  • Right: Tu-o
  • Left: Wala
  • Far: Harayu
  • Near: Hirane
  • Front or in front: Atubang or Atubangan
  • Night: Gab-i
  • Day: Adlaw
  • Nothing: Waray
  • Good: Maupay
  • Beautiful: Mahusay
  • Handsome: Gwapo
  • Boy: Lalaki
  • Girl: Babayi
  • Gay/Faggot: Bayot
  • Lesbian: Tomboy/Lesbyana
  • I'm a friend of...: Sangkay ak ni...
  • I'm lost here: Nawawara ak didi.
  • Maybe: Bangin
  • I wish...: Kunta

Other common words[change | change source]

Technical terms[change | change source]

  • Gold - Bulawan
  • Steel - puthaw
  • Car - awto / sarakyan/ kotchi
  • Airplane - edro / eroplano
  • Airport - lupadan or landingan

Astronomical terms[change | change source]

  • Earth - kalibutan
  • Moon - bulan; Indonesian - bulan
  • Sun - adlaw
  • Star - bituon Indonesian - bintang

Natural terms[change | change source]

  • Wind - hangin; Indonesian - angin
  • Fire - kalayo
  • Land - tuna; Indonesian - tanah
  • Water - lawod/tubig
  • Nature - libong
  • Mountain - bukid; Indonesian - bukit
  • Sea - dagat
  • Ocean - kalawdan Indonesian = laut i.e. ka-laut-an
  • Island - puro/isla Indonesian - pulau
  • Archipelago - kapuruan; Indonesian - kepulauan
  • River - salog
  • Lake - danaw; Indonesian - danau

Parts of the house[change | change source]

  • House - balay or Payag
  • Room - kwarto or sulod
  • Bedroom - sulod-katurugan
  • Kitchen - kusina
  • Outdoor Kitchen - abuhan
  • Dining Room - kaunan
  • Bathroom - kubeta/kasilyas/karigu-an

Members of the Family[change | change source]

  • Father - amay/tatay/papa
  • Mother - iroy/nanay/mama
  • Son/Daughter - anak
  • Brother - bugto nga lalaki
  • Sister - bugto nga babayi
  • Grandparent - apoy/lolo (male) / lola (female)
  • Cousin - patod
  • Nephew/Niece - umangkon
  • Son-in-Law/Daughter-in-Law - umagad
  • Brother-in-Law/Sister-in-Law - bayaw(male) / hipag (female)
  • Father-in-Law/Mother-in-Law - ugangan
  • Oldest Child - suhag
  • Youngest Child - puto or pudo

Fashion words[change | change source]

  • Jeans - saruwal
  • Clothes - bado / duros
  • Belt - paha

Food[change | change source]

  • Bread - tinapai
  • Rice - kan-on
  • Viand - sura
  • Coffee - kape
  • Vinegar - suoy

Animals[change | change source]

  • Dog - ayam/ inu
  • Cat - uding/ misai
  • Rat - yatut
  • Crocodile - buaya
  • Bird - tamsi
  • Snake - halas
  • Carabao - karabaw
  • Crab - masag
  • Lobster - tapusok

Waray-Waray loanwords[change | change source]

Common Waray Waray words and its foreign and local origin[change | change source]

Indonesian/Malay[change | change source]
  • Mulay (English: to play)- from Indonesian mulai
  • Balay (English: house) - from Indonesian balai
  • Sarapati (English: pigeon) - from Indonesian merpati
  • Kapuruan (English: archipelago) - from Indonesian/Malay kepulauan
  • Posporo (English: match) - from Indonesian/Malay posporo
  • Mata (English: eyes) - from Indonesian/Malay mata
  • Bulan (English: moon/month) - from Indonesian/Malay bulan
  • Ine (English: this/these) - from Indonesian/Malay ini
  • Kamo (English: you [plural]) - from Indonesian/Malay kamu
Spanish[change | change source]
  • Abandonada (Spanish: Abandonado/a) – abandoned
  • Abaniko (Spanish: Abanico) – fan
  • Abriha (Spanish: Abrir, Filipino: Abrihin) – to open
    • Abrelata (Spanish: Abrelatas) – tin-opener/can opener
  • Abril (Spanish: Abril) – April
  • Abogado (Spanish: Abogado) – lawyer, attorney
  • Aborido (Spanish: Aburrido) – bored (used in Tagalog as 'anxious, confused')
  • Akasya (Spanish: Acacia) – acacia tree
  • Aksidente (Spanish: Accidente) – accident
  • Adurnuha (Spanish: Adornar, Filipino: Adurnuhan) – to decorate
  • Agrabiyado (Spanish: Agraviado) – being aggrieved
  • Aginaldo (Spanish: Aguinaldo) – Christmas gift
  • Agosto (Spanish: Agosto) – August
  • Ahensiya (Spanish: Agencia) – agency
  • Ahente (Spanish: Agente) – agent
  • Alahas (Spanish: Alhaja) – jewel
  • Alambre (Spanish: Alambre) – wire
  • Alkansiya (Spanish: Alcancía) – piggy bank
  • Alpilir (Spanish: Alfiler) – pin
  • Alsaha (Spanish: Alzar, Filipino: Alsahin) – Ambisyoso (Spanish: Ambicioso) – ambitious
  • Ambisyon (Spanish: Ambición) – ambitionArbularyo (Spanish: Herbolario) - Medicine man (from "Herbo" -herb)
  • Arina (Spanish: Harina) – flour
  • Arkitekto (Spanish: Arquitecto) – architect
  • Armado (Spanish: Armado) – armed
  • Armibal (Spanish: Almíbar) – syrup
  • Artista (Spanish: Artista) – artist (used in Waray Waray as 'actor/actress')
  • Ariyos (Spanish: Arreos) – tack (used in Waray Waray as 'earrings')
  • Asintado (Spanish: Asentado) – settled
  • Asero (Spanish: Acero) – steel
  • Asno (Spanish: Asno) – donkey
  • Asoge (Spanish: Azogue) – mercury
  • Asosasyon (Spanish: Asociación) – association
  • Asukal (Spanish: Azúcar) – sugar
  • Asul (Spanish: Azul) – blue
  • Asyatiko (Spanish: Asiatico) – Asian
  • Intyendeha (Spanish: Atender) – to attend to
  • Atrasado (Spanish: Atrasado) – overdue, slow (clock), backward (used in Waray Waray as 'late')
  • Ayudaha (Spanish: Ayudar, Filipino: Ayudahan) – to help
  • Baboy (Spanish: vaboy) - pig
  • Banyo/Kasilyas (Spanish: Baño) – bathroom, toilet
  • Baraha (Spanish: Baraja) – deck of playing cards
  • Baratilyo (Spanish: Baratillo) – flea market (used in Waray Waray as 'bargain sale')
  • Barato (Spanish: Barato) – cheap
  • Barbero (Spanish: Barbero) – barber
  • Barbula (Spanish: Válvula) – valve
  • Bareta (Spanish Bareta) – bar
  • Bagahe (Spanish: Bagaje) – baggage
  • Baho (Spanish : Vaho) – steam (used in Waray Waray as 'foul smell')
  • Bintana (Spanish: Ventana) – window
  • Bintilador (Spanish: Ventilador) – electric fan
  • Birhen (Spanish: Virgen) – virgin
  • Bisagra (Spanish: Bisagra) – hinge
  • Bisikleta (Spanish: Bicicleta) – bicycle
  • Bisitaha (Spanish: Visitar) – to visit
  • Botika/Botica/Parmasya/Farmacia - drugstore, pharmacy
  • Conbensido (Spanish: Convencido) - convinced
  • Demanda (Spanish: Demanda) – demand
  • Demokrasiya (Spanish: Democracia) – democracy
  • Demonyo (Spanish:Demonio) – demon, evil spirit
  • Huygo (Spanish:Juego)- game (used in Waray Waray as 'gambling'
  • Hugador (Spanish:Jugador)- game (used in Waray Waray as 'gambler'
  • Dentista (Spanish: Dentista) – dentist
  • Departamento (Spanish: Departamento) – department, bureau
  • Depensa (Spanish: Defensa) – defense
  • Deposito (Spanish: Depósito) – depot (fuel), deposit (money)
  • Desisyon (Spanish: Decisión) – decision
  • Diyos/a (Spanish: Dios/a) – god/goddess
  • Doble (Spanish: Doble) – double
  • Doktor/a (Spanish: Doctor/a) – doctor
  • Don (Spanish: Don) – Mr. (used in Waray Waray to address a rich man)
  • Donya (Spanish: Doña) – Mrs. (used in Waray Waray to address a rich woman)
  • Dos (Spanish: Dos) – two
  • Dose (Spanish: Doce) – twelve
  • Dosena (Spanish: Docena) – dozen
  • Drama (Spanish: Drama) – drama
  • Droga (Spanish: Droga) – drugs
  • Karsonsilyo/Carsoncillo (Spanish: Carsoncillo) – boxer shorts (used in Waray Waray as 'shorts')
  • Marigoso (Spanish: Amargoso) - bittermelon
  • Padre (Spanish: Padre) - father (used in Waray Waray as a title for a Roman Catholic priest)
Portuguese[change | change source]
  • Porta (Portuguese: Porta) - door
  • Morto (Portuguese: Morto) - ghost
Nahuatl[change | change source]
  • Achuete (Nahuatl: Achiotl; Mexican Spanish: Achiote) – annatto seeds used to give food a reddish color
  • Kakao/Kakaw (Cacao) (Nahuatl: Cacahuatl) – cacao or cocoa
  • Sayote (Nahuatl: Chayotli; Mexican Spanish: Chayote) – a Mexican squash
  • Tiyangge (Nahuatl: Tianquiztli; Mexican Spanish: Tianguis) – seasonal markets
  • Tsokolate (Nahuatl: Xocolatl) – chocolate
Chinese[change | change source]
  • Bakya (Fukien Chinese) – native wooden sandals
  • Bihon – Vermicelli (made of rice flour)
  • Bitsin (Fukien Chinese: Bi chhin) – monosodium glutamate
  • Jueteng (Fukien Chinese) – illegal numbers game
  • Lumpia (Fukien Chinese) – spring rolls
English[change | change source]
  • Basket – basket
  • Basketbol – basketball
  • Basketbulan - basketball court
  • Bilib - believe
  • Bilyar - billiard
  • Bilyaran - billiard hall
  • Chiki - check
  • Dyip – jeep
  • Elementari – elementary
  • Ekonomiks - economics
  • Eksport – export
  • Ekpres - express
  • Erkon - air con
  • Greyd – grade
  • Groseri – grocery
  • Hai Skul – High School
  • Iskor – score
  • Iskrin – screen
  • Ispiker - speaker
  • Keyk – cake
  • Kostomer/Kustomer – customer
  • Kompyuter – computer
  • Kondisyoner - conditioner
  • Kontrol - control
  • Krim - cream
  • Kukis - cookies
  • Lider – leader
  • Losyon - lotion
  • Manedyer – manager
  • Masel – muscle
  • Makroekonomiks - macroeconomics
  • Maikroekonomiks - microeconomics
  • Isparkol - sparkle
Cebuano[change | change source]
  • Bana (Cebuano: Bana) - husband

Other pages[change | change source]

References[change | change source]

  1. Philippine Census, 2000. Table 11. Household Population by Ethnicity, Sex and Region: 2000

Other websites[change | change source]