2011 Libyan civil war

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Libyan Civil War
Part of the Arab Spring and Libyan Crisis (2011–present)
Tanks outside of Misrata (6) (8288579409).jpg
Destroyed tanks outside Misrata
Date15 February – 23 October 2011
(8 months, 1 week and 1 day)
LocationLibya
Result

Rebel victory

Belligerents

National Transitional Council

 Qatar[3][4][5]


Enforcing UNSC Resolution 1973:


Minor border clashes:

 Tunisia

Libyan Arab Jamahiriya

Commanders and leaders

Mustafa Abdul Jalil[18]
Omar El-Hariri[19]
Jalal al-Digheily
Abdul Fatah Younis 
Suleiman Mahmoud[20]
Hamad bin Ali Al Attiyah


J.C.C Bouchard[21]

Muammar Gaddafi 
Saif al-Islam Gaddafi (POW)
Khamis Gaddafi 
Mutassim Gaddafi 
Saif al-Arab Gaddafi [22]
Al-Saadi Gaddafi (POW)
Abu-Bakr Yunis Jabr 
Massoud Abdelhafid

Mahdi al-Arabi (POW)
Strength

17,000 defecting soldiers and volunteers,[23][not in the source given] 200,000 volunteers by war's end
(NTC estimate)[24]


International Forces: Numerous air and maritime forces (see here)
20,000[25]–40,000[26] soldiers and militia
Casualties and losses
5,904–6,626 opposition fighters and supporters killed (other estimates: see here) 3,309–4,227 soldiers killed (other estimates: see here),
7,000 captured*[27]
Estimated total casualties from all sides, including civilians:
9,400–20,000 killed, 4,000 missing, 50,000 injured[28]
(other estimates: see here)
*Large number of loyalist or immigrant civilians, not military personnel, among those captured by rebels,[29] only an estimated minimum of 1,692+ confirmed as soldiers[30]

The Libyan Civil War was a civil war in Libya during the year 2011. It began in the middle of February 2011. Many Libyans were inspired by the uprisings in neighbouring countries, such as Tunisia and Egypt. They violently protested against the government.[31] Colonel Muammar Gaddafi sent troops and tanks to break up the rebellion. Al-quaeda started bombing.[32] and rebels began forming their own government.[33] The war led to the death of Gaddafi in October, and of thousands of other people.

Beginning of Conflict Against Gaddafi[change | change source]

The conflict began with series of demonstrations and riots. There were many small protests of about 300-500 people throughout January. Major protests did not begin until 14 February 2011. The demonstrations were protesting against the Government of Libya and its leader Muammar al-Gaddafi. The conflict grew as thousands of people joined the protests. Gaddafi vowed to hunt them down and "clean Libya house by house" until all rebels are gone. However, some of Gaddafi's soldiers began joining the rebels in protest. The protests are thought to have been inspired by the successful uprising in Tunisia and Egypt.

According to NBC News Chief Foreign Correspondent, Richard Engel, who entered Libya and had reached the city of Tobruk on 22 February 2011 was quoted as saying, "the protest movement is no longer a protest movement, it's a war. It's open revolt." and on 22 February, The Economist described the protests as an "uprising that is trying to reclaim Libya from the world's longest-ruling autocrat". On 21 February, the Libyan Air Force aircraft attacked civilian protesters in Tripoli which caused international condemnation. By this time, over 300 to 2,000 were dead and over 5,000 were injured.

Armed conflict[change | change source]

There were small battles until February 24, when Gaddafi sent tanks and troops into Misrata and attacked. Then, on March 6, launched a counter-offensive against Rebels. This lasted until 12 March. He regained Ra's Lanuf and Brega. The Rebels gained power when NATO and other countries began bombarding Gaddafi's forces with attack aircraft.

The Rebels' launched a counter-offensive on March 27 that lasted until April 1. The Rebels regained a few cities.

The Battle of Misrata was the fiercest battle in the civil war. The Hamza Brigade fought for Gaddafi against the Rebels from 24 February to 12 March. The Khamis Brigade, run by Gaddafi's son Khamis, rolled in and nearly destroyed the entire city. The rebels won the battle and took control of the city.

End[change | change source]

The rebels also won in Benghazi and other places. They took Tripoli in August. In October the fighting diminished, and the rebels declared victory. His enemies killed Gaddafi on 20 October 2011.

References[change | change source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Dagher, Sam (21 June 2011). "Libya City Torn by Tribal Feud". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 26 July 2011. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 Von Rohr, Mathieu (26 July 2011). "Tribal Rivalries Complicate Libyan War". Der Spiegel. Retrieved 26 July 2011. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 "NTC asks NATO to extend Libya presence". Al Jazeera. 26 October 2011. Retrieved 26 October 2011. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 "Libya's Mustafa Abdul Jalil asks Nato to stay longer". BBC. 26 October 2011. Retrieved 4 November 2011. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 Black, Ian (26 October 2011). "Qatar admits sending hundreds of troops to support Libya rebels". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 20 November 2011. 
  6. "Last Libyan Mission for Norway's F16S To Fly Tomorrow". Agenzia Giornalistica Italia. 29 July 2011. Archived from the original on 23 November 2012. Retrieved 11 August 2011. 
  7. "Jordanian Fighters Protecting Aid Mission". The Jordan Times. 6 April 2011. Retrieved 6 April 2011. 
  8. "UAE Updates Support to UN Resolution 1973". Emirates News Agency. 25 March 2011. Retrieved 26 March 2011. 
  9. "Libya's Tribal Politics Key to Gaddafi's Fate". Stabroek News. London. Reuters. 23 February 2011. Retrieved 26 July 2011. 
  10. "Is Libya's Gaddafi Turning to Foreign Mercenaries?". Reuters Africa. 24 February 2011. Retrieved 6 June 2011. 
  11. "Mali fears as Tuaregs return from Libya". News24. Cape Town, South Africa. 16 October 2011. Retrieved 5 November 2011. 
  12. | В Ливии на стороне правительства воюет немало зимбабвийцев. Комсомольская правда
  13. "Летало ли белорусское оружие в Ливию и Кот-д'Ивуар?". 
  14. На стороне Каддафи воюют белорусские партизаны. Комсомольская правда
  15. "Белорусские военные позволяют армии Каддафи противостоять НАТО". 
  16. Algeria May have Violated UN Resolution By Providing Weapons to Libya, US State Dept
  17. Сирия шлет Каддафи оружие и боеприпасы// ИА Росбалт, 14/03/2011
  18. "Middle East Unrest". Reuters. Retrieved 6 June 2011. 
  19. "Libya's Opposition Leadership Comes into Focus". Stratfor (via Business Insider). 8 March 2011. Retrieved 26 March 2011. 
  20. "The Colonel Fights Back". The Economist. 10 March 2011. Retrieved 26 March 2011. 
  21. "Canadian To Lead NATO's Libya Mission". CBC News. 25 March 2011. Retrieved 26 March 2011. 
  22. "Nato strike 'kills Gaddafi's youngest son'". Al Jazeera. 30 April 2011. Retrieved 28 October 2011. 
  23. "Feature Report – Long summer of civil war in Libya". Defence News. Archived from the original on 20 August 2006. Retrieved 28 October 2011. 
  24. "Jordan begins Libya police training programme". BBC. 25 April 2012. Retrieved 3 May 2012. 
  25. "Gadhafi Asks Obama To Call Off NATO Military Campaign". CTV News. 6 April 2011. Archived from the original on 8 April 2011. Retrieved 14 August 2011. 
  26. "Libya: How the Opposing Sides Are Armed". BBC News. 10 March 2011. Retrieved 14 August 2011. 
  27. Sheridan, Mary Beth (22 October 2011). "Prisoners in Libya languish without charge". The Washington Post. Misrata. Archived from the original on 23 October 2011. Retrieved 25 January 2012. 
  28. "Libyan estimate: At least 30,000 died in the war". Arab Times. Tripoli. Associated Press. 8 September 2011. Archived from the original on 15 June 2012. Retrieved 27 January 2012. 
  29. "Libyan Rebels Accused of Arbitrary Arrests, Torture". CNN. 5 June 2011. 
  30. 300 prisoners in Benghazi,"Archived copy". Archived from the original on 12 August 2011. Retrieved 31 July 2011.  230 prisoners in Misrata,[1] 52 prisoners in Nalut,[2] 13 prisoners in Yafran,[3] 50 prisoners in al-Galaa,[4][permanent dead link] 147 prisoners in Zintan,[5] 600 prisoners in Tripoli,"Archived copy". Archived from the original on 30 March 2012. Retrieved 9 October 2011.  150 prisoners in Sabha,[6] 150 prisoners in Sirte minimum of 1,692 reported captured
  31. http://www.informationclearinghouse.info/article28376.htm
  32. http://www.scoop.co.nz/stories/HL1110/S00144/un-silent-despite-no-basis-for-natos-illegal-war-on-libya.htm
  33. https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/africaandindianocean/libya/8407047/Libyan-rebel-commander-admits-his-fighters-have-al-Qaeda-links.html