COVID-19 pandemic

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COVID-19 pandemic
COVID-19 Outbreak World Map per Capita.svg
Confirmed cases per 100,000 population as of 10 August 2020:
Total confirmed cases
COVID-19 Outbreak World Map.svg
Map of total confirmed cases as of 10 August 2020
  1,000,000+
  100,000–999,999
  10,000–99,999
  1,000–9,999
  100–999
  1–99
  None or no data
Confirmed deaths (per 1,000,000 population)
COVID-19 Outbreak World Map Total Deaths per Capita.svg
Map of confirmed deaths per capita as of 10 August 2020
  100+
  10–100
  1–10
  0.1–1
  >0–0.1
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A nurse caring for a patient with COVID-19 in an intensive care unit
Meeting of the Italian government task force to face the coronavirus outbreak, 23 February 2020
Taiwanese 33rd Chemical Corps spraying disinfectant on a street in Taipei
Passengers at Linate Airport in Milan have their temperatures taken
Almost empty supermarket aisle in Melbourne, Australia
Top to bottom:
DiseaseCoronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)
Virus strainSevere acute respiratory syndrome
coronavirus 2
(SARS‑CoV‑2)[a]
SourceProbably bats, possibly via pangolins[2][3]
LocationWorldwide
First outbreakChina[4]
Index caseWuhan, Hubei, China
30°37′11″N 114°15′28″E / 30.61972°N 114.25778°E / 30.61972; 114.25778
Date1 December 2019 (2019-12-01)[4] – July 30, 2020 (2020-07-30)
(8 months, 1 week and 3 days)
Confirmed cases8,320,288[5][b]
Active cases3,837,055[5]
Recovered4,035,605[5]
Deaths
447,628[5]
Territories
188[5]

The COVID-19 pandemic is a current pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). It is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2).[1][6][c] The outbreak started in Wuhan, Hubei, China, in December 2019. The World Health Organization (WHO) called it a pandemic on 11 March 2020.[7][8][9][10][11] The International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses gave the virus its name. As of 15 June, more than 8 million cases of COVID-19 have been reported in more than 210 countries and territories. As of 25 June 2020, more than 489,405 people have died of COVID-19.[12] 4,808,236 people have recovered (got better),[12][13][14]

The virus usually spreads (moves) from one person to another with small drops made when coughing[15][16] or sneezing.[17] It mostly spreads when people are close to each other. It can also spread when people touch a surface with the virus, and then they touch their face.[16][17] Common symptoms include fever, cough, and shortness of breath (difficulty breathing).[18] Complications (when the illness gets worse) may include pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome.[19] As of June 2020, there is no vaccine or specific antiviral medicine for COVID-19.[20] Doctors usually give patients supportive therapy instead.[21] People can avoid spreading the virus by regularly washing their hands, covering their mouth when coughing, maintaining distance from other people, and monitoring (being careful and watching the symptoms), staying away from public places (especially crowds of people), and self-isolation (being alone) for people who think they are infected.[20]

The outbreak might be from a coronavirus that usually lives in bats. This infected another animal, possibly a pangolin. It then changed inside that other animal until it could infect humans.[22]

Video summary (script) on the coronavirus disease (4:12 min)

Epidemiology[change | change source]

Location[d] Cases[b] Deaths[e] Recov.[f] Ref.
Worldwide[g] 8,320,288 447,628 4,035,605 [5]
United States[h] 2,235,934 120,250 698,869 [30]
Brazil[i] 984,315 47,897 520,360 [34][35]
Russia[j] 569,063 7,841 324,406 [36]
India 2,268,675 45,257 1,583,489 [37]
United Kingdom[k] 301,815 42,461 No data [39][40]
Spain[l] 245,268 28,313 150,376 [41]
Peru 244,388 7,461 131,190 [42][43]
Italy 238,159 34,514 180,544 [44][45]
Chile[m] 231,393 4,093 No data [46]
Iran 200,262 9,392 159,192 [47]
Germany[n] 190,126 8,946 174,004 [49][48]
Turkey 184,031 4,882 156,022 [50]
Mexico 165,455 19,747 123,095 [51][52]
Pakistan 165,062 3,229 61,383 [53]
France[o] 158,641 29,603 73,887 [54]
Saudi Arabia 150,292 1,184 95,764 [55]
Bangladesh 105,535 1,388 42,945 [56]
Canada 100,220 8,300 62,496 [57]
Qatar 85,462 93 65,409 [58]
South Africa 83,890 1,737 44,920 [59]
China[p] 83,325 4,634 78,398 [60]
Belgium[q] 60,476 9,695 16,751 [62]
Colombia 60,217 1,950 22,680 [63]
Belarus 57,333 337 35,275 [64]
Sweden 56,043 5,053 No data [65]
Egypt[r] 50,437 1,938 13,528 [66]
Netherlands[s] 49,426 6,081 No data [68]
Ecuador 49,097 4,087 4,910 [69]
United Arab Emirates 44,145 300 30,996 [70]
Indonesia 43,803 2,373 17,349 [71]
Singapore 41,615 26 33,459 [72][73]
Portugal 38,089 1,524 24,010 [74]
Kuwait 38,074 308 29,512 [75]
Argentina[t] 37,497 948 10,708 [77]
Ukraine[u] 34,984 985 16,033 [78]
Poland 31,316 1,334 15,698 [79][80]
Switzerland 31,217 1,680 28,900 [81][82]
Philippines 28,459 1,130 7,378 [83][84]
Afghanistan 27,878 548 7,962 [85]
Oman 26,818 119 13,264 [86]
Iraq 25,717 856 11,333 [87]
Ireland 25,355 1,714 23,308 [88]
Dominican Republic 24,645 635 14,293 [89]
Romania 23,400 1,484 16,555 [90]
Panama 23,351 475 13,782 [91]
Bolivia 21,499 697 4,320 [92]
Bahrain 20,430 55 14,696 [93]
Israel[v] 19,894 303 15,499 [94]
Armenia 18,698 309 7,560 [95]
Nigeria 18,480 475 6,307 [96]
Japan[w] 17,740 935 16,008 [97]
Austria 17,223 688 16,101 [98]
Kazakhstan 16,351 105 10,139 [99]
Moldova[x] 13,106 444 7,252 [100]
Ghana 12,929 66 4,468 [101]
Serbia[y] 12,616 258 11,348 [102]
Denmark[z] 12,344 600 11,242 [103]
South Korea 12,306 280 10,835 [104]
Guatemala 11,868 449 2,290 [105]
Algeria 11,385 811 8,078 [106][107]
Azerbaijan[aa] 11,329 139 6,192 [108]
Honduras 10,739 343 1,179 [109]
Cameroon 10,638 282 7,548 [110][111]
Czech Republic 10,283 334 7,446 [112]
Morocco[ab] 9,042 213 7,999 [114]
Norway[ac] 8,708 244 8,138 [117]
Malaysia 8,529 121 8,000 [118]
Sudan 8,020 487 2,966 [119]
Nepal 7,848 22 1,186 [120][121]
Australia[ad] 7,409 102 6,877 [122]
Finland[ae] 7,119 326 6,200 [123]
Ivory Coast 6,444 49 2,863 [125]
Uzbekistan 5,855 19 4,199 [126]
Senegal 5,475 54 3,716 [127]
DR Congo[af] 5,283 117 685 [128]
Tajikistan 5,279 51 3,762 [129]
Haiti 4,916 84 24 [130]
Guinea 4,841 26 3,467 [131]
North Macedonia 4,664 216 1,836 [132][133]
Djibouti 4,557 43 3,527 [134]
Gabon 4,340 32 1,657 [135]
El Salvador 4,329 86 2,310 [136]
Kenya 4,374 119 1,550 [137]
Luxembourg 4,091 110 3,940 [138]
Hungary 4,081 568 2,581 [139]
Ethiopia 3,954 65 934 [140]
Bulgaria 3,542 184 1,880 [141]
Venezuela 3,386 28 835 [142][143]
Greece 3,227 188 1,374 [144]
Bosnia and Herzegovina 3,174 168 2,219 [145]
Thailand 3,146 58 3,008 [146][147]
Kyrgyzstan 2,789 32 1,961 [148]
Somalia[ag] 2,719 88 724 [149]
Central African Republic 2,605 19 417 [150]
Mauritania 2,424 97 550 [151]
Cuba[ah] 2,295 85 2,020 [152]
Croatia 2,269 107 2,141 [153]
Maldives 2,137 8 1,759 [154]
Estonia 1,977 69 1,748 [155]
Sri Lanka 1,948 11 1,446 [156]
Costa Rica 1,939 12 937 [157]
Mali 1,906 107 1,192 [158]
South Sudan 1,830 32 117 [159][160]
Nicaragua 1,823 64 1,238 [79][161]
Iceland 1,816 10 1,801 [162]
Albania 1,788 39 1,086 [163]
Lithuania 1,784 76 1,449 [164]
Equatorial Guinea 1,664 32 515 [165]
Slovakia 1,562 28 1,443 [166]
Slovenia 1,511 109 1,359 [167][168]
Puerto Rico 1,499 147 850 [169]
Lebanon 1,495 32 944 [170]
Guinea-Bissau 1,492 15 153 [171]
Kosovo 1,486 33 953 [172]
Zambia 1,416 11 1,144 [173][174]
Madagascar 1,403 13 463 [175]
Paraguay 1,330 13 717 [176]
Sierra Leone 1,272 51 710 [177][178]
New Zealand 1,157 22 1,132 [179]
Tunisia 1,132 50 1,006 [180]
Hong Kong 1,125 4 1,072 [181]
Latvia 1,108 30 903 [79][182]
USS Theodore Roosevelt[ai] 1,102 1 751 [183][184]
Charles de Gaulle[aj] 1,081 0 0 [185]
Niger 1,020 67 901 [189]
Jordan 1,001 9 697 [190]
Cyprus[ak] 985 19 818 [191]
Donetsk PR[al] 926 52 255 [192]
Yemen 909 248 273 [193]
Burkina Faso 899 53 809 [194][195]
Georgia[am] 895 14 741 [196]
Congo[an] 883 27 391 [197][198]
Andorra 855 52 792 [199]
Chad 854 74 733 [200]
Uruguay[ao] 850 24 814 [201]
Cape Verde 823 7 377 [202]
Uganda 741 0 486 [203][204]
Diamond Princess[w] 712 14 653 [205][206]
San Marino 696 45 609 [207]
São Tomé and Príncipe 688 12 191 [208]
Malta 663 9 610 [209]
Mozambique 662 4 175 [210]
Rwanda 646 2 350 [211][212]
Jamaica 638 10 458 [213]
Palestine 599 3 415 [214]
Benin 597 11 238 [215]
Malawi 592 8 74 [216]
Eswatini 586 4 267 [217]
Somaliland[ap] 550 27 64 [218][219]
Togo 547 13 353 [220]
Liberia 542 33 250 [221]
Libya 510 10 81 [222][223]
Tanzania 509 21 183 [224][225]
Luhansk PR[al] 466 11 418 [226]
Zimbabwe 463 4 63 [227][228]
Taiwan[aq] 446 7 434 [230]
Vietnam 342 0 325 [231]
Mauritius 337 10 325 [232]
Montenegro 337 9 315 [233]
Isle of Man[ar] 336 24 312 [234]
Jersey 318 30 296 [235]
Myanmar 286 6 187 [236]
Suriname 277 8 72 [237][238]
Guernsey 252 13 238 [239]
Comoros 210 35 129 [240]
Mongolia 204 0 132 [241]
Cayman Islands 193 1 141 [242]
Guam[ai] 193 5 170 [30][243]
Faroe Islands 187 0 187 [244]
Syria[as] 187 7 78 [245]
Guyana 183 12 102 [246]
Gibraltar 176 0 174 [247]
Angola 166 8 64 [248]
Costa Atlantica 148 0 148 [249][250]
Bermuda 144 9 128 [251]
Eritrea 142 0 39 [252]
Brunei 141 3 138 [253][254]
Cambodia 129 0 126 [255]
Greg Mortimer[ao] 128 1 No data [256][257]
Trinidad and Tobago 117 8 109 [258]
Northern Cyprus[at] 108 4 104 [259]
Bahamas 104 11 72 [260]
Burundi 104 1 75 [261]
Aruba 101 3 98 [262]
Monaco 99 4 94 [263]
Barbados 97 7 85 [264]
Artsakh[au] 94 0 56 [265]
Liechtenstein 82 1 55 [266][267]
South Ossetia[av] 81 0 43 [265]
Botswana 79 1 25 [268]
Sint Maarten 77 15 62 [269]
U.S. Virgin Islands 73 6 64 [270]
Bhutan 67 0 24 [271]
French Polynesia 60 0 60 [272]
Macau 45 0 45 [273]
Namibia 40 0 19 [274][275]
Abkhazia[aw] 38 1 27 [265]
The Gambia 36 1 24 [276]
Northern Mariana Islands 30 2 19 [277]
Saint Vincent[ax] 29 0 25 [278][279]
Antigua and Barbuda 26 3 22 [280][281]
East Timor 24 0 24 [282]
Curaçao 23 1 19 [283]
Grenada 23 0 22 [284][285]
Belize 22 2 17 [286]
New Caledonia 21 0 21 [287]
Laos 19 0 19 [288]
Saint Lucia 19 0 18 [289][290]
Fiji 18 0 18 [291]
Dominica 18 0 16 [292]
Saint Kitts and Nevis 15 0 15 [293]
Falkland Islands 13 0 13 [294]
Greenland 13 0 13 [295]
MS Zaandam[ay] 13 4 No data [298][299]
Coral Princess[az] 12 3 No data [301]
Turks and Caicos Islands 12 1 11 [302]
Vatican City 12 0 12 [303]
Montserrat 11 1 10 [304]
Seychelles 11 0 11 [305]
British Virgin Islands 8 1 7 [306]
HNLMS Dolfijn[ba] 8 0 8 [307][310]
Papua New Guinea 8 0 8 [311]
Lesotho 4 0 2 [312]
Anguilla 3 0 3 [313]
Saba 3 0 3 [314]
Bonaire 2 0 2 [315]
Sint Eustatius 2 0 2 [316]
Saint Pierre and Miquelon 1 0 1 [317]
As of 5 August 2020 (UTC) · History of cases: China, international
For notes, see the Notes section.

Epidemiology is the study of how diseases affect the health and illness of populations.

Background[change | change source]

On 31 December 2019, Chinese health authorities reported to the World Health Organization (WHO) a cluster of viral pneumonia cases of unknown cause in Wuhan,"Novel Coronavirus". World Health Organization (WHO). Archived from the original on 2 February 2020. Retrieved 6 February 2020.</ref>[318] and an investigation was launched in early January 2020.[319]

On 9 June 2020, a Harvard University study suggested that COVID-19 may have been spreading in China as early as August 2019, based on hospital car park usage and web search trends.[320]

Cases[change | change source]

Cases means the number of people who have been tested for COVID-19, and whose test has been confirmed positive according to official methods.[321]

Deaths[change | change source]

Deceased in a 16 m (53 ft) "mobile morgue" outside a hospital in Hackensack, New Jersey

Most people who contract COVID-19 recover. For those who do not, the time between the start of symptoms and death usually ranges from 6 to 41 days, typically about 14 days.[322]

Duration[change | change source]

On 11 March 2020, the WHO said that the pandemic could be controlled.[7]

Symptoms[change | change source]

Symptoms of COVID-19. There are reports that even people who do not show symptoms can spread it.[325]

According to the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, COVID-19 makes people feel sick in different ways, but it usually affects the lungs. People usually cough and have difficulty breathing. They often also have a fever, chills, headache, pain in their muscles, or trouble tasting or smelling things.[326]

According to an April 2020 study by the American Gastroenterological Association, COVID-19 can make sick people vomit or have diarrhea, but this is rare. They said about 7.7% of COVID-19 patients vomited, about 7.8% had diarrhea and about 3.6% had pain in their stomachs.[327]

Data[change | change source]

Name[change | change source]

In February 2020, the WHO announced a name for the disease caused by SARS-CoV-2: COVID-19. It replaced the name "2019-nCoV."[328] "Covi" is for "coronavirus," "D" for "disease," and "19" for the year 2019. They said they did not want the name to have any person, place, or animal in it because people might blame the disease on that place, person, or animal. For example, it did not use the word "Wuhan." They also wanted the name to be easy to say out loud.[329]

Mortality rate of COVID-19[change | change source]

The current death rate of COVID-19

According to an article in Market Watch dated on February 27, 2020, the overall case mortality rate in China was 2.3%. However, there were large differences between different age groups and between men and women. People over the age of seventy experienced a rate of mortality 4-5 times that of the average. Men were more likely to die than women (2.8% versus 1.7% for women). These numbers were the conclusion of a study by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention using 72,314 COVID-19 cases in mainland China as of Feb. 11. At that point this was the largest sample of cases for such a study.[330]

On March 5, 2020, the WHO released the case fatality rate.[331]

Race and racism[change | change source]

COVID-19 did not affect everyone in each country the same way.[332] As of May 2020, APM Research Lab said the death rate among black Americans was 2.4 times as high as for whites and 2.2 times as high as for Latino and Asian Americans.[333] In July 2020, The New York Times printed data from the Centers for Disease Control showing that black and Latino Americans were three times as likely to become sick and twice as likely to die as white Americans. This was not only in large cities but also in rural areas. This was not only for old people but for people in all age groups. Native Americans were also more likely than whites to become sick and die. Asian Americans were 1.3 times as likely as whites to become sick.[334]

Camara Jones, an epidemiologist who once worked for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention said this was socioeconomic and not because of any natural difference in black and white people's bodies.[335] In the United States, black citizens are more likely to work jobs where they serve the public and to ride on buses and trains rather than take their own cars to work, which makes them more likely to be infected than people who work in private offices or from home. Sharrelle Barber, an epidemiologist and biostatistician from Drexel University, also said black Americans can live in crowded neighborhoods where social distancing is harder to do and healthy food harder to find.[336] Both Barber and Jones blamed the long history of racism in the United States for these things. Three senators, Kamala Harris, Cory Booker and Elizabeth Warren said the federal government should start recording the race of COVID-19 patients so scientists could study this problem.[336]

In June, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) told the public that people using the United States' government's Medicare health program had different results depending on race. Four times as many black Medicare patients went to hospitals for COVID-19 than white Medicare patients. There were twice as many hospitalized Hispanic patients than white patients. There were three hospitalized Asian patients for every two hospitalized white patients. The head of CMS, Seema Verma, said this was mostly because of socioeconomic status.[337]

In the United Kingdom, twice as many black COVID-19 patients died as white COVID-19 patients. Other non-white people, like people from India and Bangledesh, were also more likely to die of COVID-19 than whites. Britain's Office of National Statistics said that the differences in money and education explained some of this difference but not all of it. They also said they did not know whether non-white patients caught COVID-19 more often or whether they caught more severe cases. Only female Chinese Britons were less likely to die of COVID-19 than white Britons.[338]

Indigenous peoples[change | change source]

Native Americans in the United States have shown more deaths from COVID-19 than the rest of the U.S.[339] As of May, the Navajo Nation had 88 deaths and 2,757 cases, and the money they had been promised by the government arrived several weeks late. Only 30% of the people in the Navajo Nation have pipes with running water, which made it difficult for people to wash their hands.[340]

Scientists from Chapman University made a plan to protect the Tsimane people in Bolivia from COVID-19 and said this plan would also work for other indigenous peoples living on their own land. The scientists said that many indigenous peoples have problems that make COVID-19 more dangerous for them, like poverty, less clean water, and other lung diseases. Hospitals may be a long distance away, and racism can affect the way doctors and nurses react. But they also sometimes have things that help, like traditions of making decisions together and the ability to grow food nearby.[339] The scientists found people who spoke the Tsimane language as a first language and made teams to go to Tsimane towns to warn them about COVID-19. They also used radio stations. They said the best plan was for whole communities to decide to isolate. They found this worked well because the Tsimane already usually made their big decisions together as a community in special meetings and already had a tradition of quarantining new mothers. The Chapman scientists said their plan would also work for other indigenous peoples who also make decisions together, like the Tsimane. [341][339] The Waswanipi Cree in Canada, the Mapoon people in Australia, and many groups in South America already tried plans like these on their own.[339][342]

George Floyd protests[change | change source]

In May 2020, police officers in Minneapolis, Minnesota killed an unarmed black man called George Floyd while they were arresting him. There were weeks of protests all over the world against police racism. Experts said they were worried protesters and police could spread SARS-CoV-2 to each other. Other experts said some of the reasons that the protests were so big was because non-white people were being killed by COVID-19 more than white people were, because poor leadership in the COVID-19 crisis reminded them of poor leadership about racism, and because the lockdowns shut down workplaces and other things. This meant people had more time to protest.[342] [343][344][345]

Conspiracy theories[change | change source]

In early 2020, some people began to think that the SARS-CoV-2 may have been made on purpose in a laboratory and either released by accident or on purpose like a weapon. Some Iranians thought the Americans might have made it.[346] Chinese state media said COVID-19 came from the United States to China and not the other way around.[347] Some Americans thought the Chinese might have made it.[348] Some Britons thought it might have been created by accident by 5G cell phone networks.[349]

On March 17, 2020, scientists from Columbia University and other places published a paper in Nature Medicine showing that SARS-CoV-2 was almost surely not made by humans in a laboratory. They did this by comparing the genomes of different viruses to each other.[22] The scientists saw that SARS-CoV-2 did not match any of the viral backbones that already exist for virologists to use.[350] Within a few weeks, it became one of the most cited scientific papers in history, meaning that other scientists were reading and using it.

Graphs[change | change source]

Timelines of COVID-19 [change | change source]

Map of national and subnational lockdowns as of 30 March 2020 (table; more details)      National lockdown     Subnational lockdown     No lockdown

On December 31, 2019, China alerted WHO to several cases of unusual pneumonia in Wuhan, Hubei province. [353]

On January 20, 2020, Chinese premier Li Keqiang called for efforts to stop and control the pneumonia epidemic caused by a novel coronavirus.[354] As of February 5, 2020, 24,588 cases have been confirmed,[355][356] including in every province-level division of China.[355] A larger number of people may have been infected, but not detected (especially mild cases).[357][358] The first local transmission of the virus outside China occurred in Vietnam between family members,[359] while the first local transmission not involving family occurred in Germany, on January 22, when a German man contracted the disease from a Chinese business visitor at a meeting.[360] As of 5 February 2020, 493 deaths have been attributed to the virus since the first confirmed death on January 9, with 990 recoveries.[361][355] The first death outside China was reported in the Philippines, in a 44-year-old Chinese male on February 1.[362], but another source reported: "The first cases of COVID-19 outside of China were identified on January 13 in Thailand and on January 16 in Japan".[363]

There has been testing which have showed over 6000 confirmed cases in China,[364] some of whom are healthcare workers.[365][366]

Confirmed cases have also been reported in Thailand, South Korea, Japan, Taiwan, Macau, Hong Kong, the United States (Everett, Washington and Chicago),[366] Singapore,[367] Vietnam,[368] France[369] and Nepal.[370]

The World Health Organization declared that this is a Public Health Emergency of International Concern since January 30, 2020.

Bloomberg News and other business publications have reported several plant closures, travel restrictions, and imposed quarantines as a result of this outbreak.[371]

As of February 10, 2020 there have been 40,235 confirmed cases reported of people infected by the virus in China. Also reported were 909 deaths, and 319 cases in 24 other countries, including one death, according to WHO chief Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus.[372]

China[change | change source]

  • The first cases of COVID-19 were detected in Wuhan, Hubei, Mainland China in December of 2019.[373]
  • On Feb. 4, 2020, the Seattle Times reported that Around 2020 Chinese new year authorities closed down travel from China to Macau. As a result visits fell eighty percent.[374]
  • Feb 6, 2020, the COVID-19 whistleblower, Li Wenliang, dies of the disease.
  • On February 6, 2020, according to Chinese authorities, a man from the United States who tested positive for the virus died[375]
  • On February  25, 2020 Asian Scientist Magazine reported  Chinese Scientists Sequence Genome Of COVID-19 [376]
  • According to the European Centre for Disease Prevention China had the largest number of confirmed cases  and deaths on March 1, 2020 [377]
  • On March 3, 2020 Science (journal) reported:
    • China built two new hospitals in one week just for patients of COVID-19
    • The article praised the way China has handled this crisis, but said "draconian" measures were used to achieve success.[378]
  • On March 6, 2020, CNN reported that a hotel used as a COVID-19 quarantine center collapsed. Seventy people were trapped in a collapsed Quanzhou hotel.[379]
  • Cases going down[source?]
  • Economy affected many factories shut down[source?]

United States[change | change source]

Economic effects of COVID-19 in the United States[change | change source]

Italy[change | change source]

  • On February 27, 2020, according to the EU Observer, a dozen towns in the northern regions of Lombardy and Veneto were under lockdown, with around 50,000 citizens not allowed to leave, and over 200 reported cases of COVID n Italy.[387]
  • On March 4, 2020, according to the Guardian,the Italian government has ordered the closure of all of Italy's schools and universities until 15 March, 2020[388]
  • On March 5, 2020 the Guardian reported: "Italian educational institutions close as Covid-19 deaths pass 100"[389]
  • On March 8,2020, Al Jazeeera reported that after a daily increase of 1,247 cases, Lombardy together with ten other areas were sealed off in an effort to quarantine 16 million people[390] Milan and Venice are in the quarantined area. [391]
  • March 10, 2020, Italy under quarantine. [392][393]

Iran[change | change source]

  • On 28 February 2020 the BBC reported COVID-19 deaths in Iran were at least 210[394]
  • March 3, 2020 multiple Iranian government officials including deputy health minister Iraj Harirchi and vice president of women and family affairs Masoumeh Ebtekar, who served as a spokesperson during the Iran hostage crisis, had contracted COVID-19.[395][396]

Canada[change | change source]

South Africa[change | change source]

CoViD-19 outbreak cases in South Africa.png

Australia[change | change source]

New Zealand[change | change source]

COVID-19 cases have been reported in most parts of New Zealand. The quick response by New Zealands prime minister meant that they have completely overcome the virus and is soon to go to Level 1 of their plan. There were clusters popping up all over New Zealand including one at a wedding and one at a rest home(which lead to many deaths). Even so not many have died, the numbers are in the teens. School and non-essential workplaces have gone back to work as their are no active cases in the country. (This was written by someone who is from New Zealand)

Cruise ships[change | change source]

  • 17 February 2020 the BBC reported: "Coronavirus: Japan cruise ship's US passengers home for further quarantine"[400]
  • Nineteen crew members of the cruise ship off the coast of California tested positive [401]
  • Another Crew Member Suspected of Contracting Coronavirus[402]

Food and hunger[change | change source]

The pandemic made it more difficult for millions of people all over the world to get enough food. People lost their jobs, so they did not have money to buy food. Farms were shut down, so there was less food made. Processing plants and food factories were shut down, so less food was made ready for people to eat.[403]

In April, Arif Husain of the United Nations' World Food Program said that 130 million more people could go hungry, in addition to the 135 million who were already hungry before the pandemic began. He said that poorer countries would be more affected than rich countries because the way they move raw food from farms to cities and other places where people live is less organized and relies more on human beings than on automatic systems.[403]

This hunger crisis is different from crises in other years because it happened to the whole world at the same time. That meant that people working in other countries could not help by sending money home.[403][404]

All over the world, children who ate meals at school had less access to food when the schools were shut down.[403]

Scientists from the University of Michigan said the pandemic was making it harder for people to find food. In a study published in May, they said out of of seven Americans over age 50 said they had trouble getting enough food before the pandemic, and it got worse when senior centers that provided meals were closed.[405] Federal and state governments started programs to bring food to older people and children. There were also more food donation drives in towns.[404]

Old people[change | change source]

In the United States, nursing homes had some of the highest rates of infection and death, 40% of all COVID-19 deaths in the country. Nursing homes are group homes for old people who need medical care, for disabled people who need medical care, and for people recovering from severe sickness or injury, like stroke patients.

Many people who live in nursing homes pay through the government program Medicaid, which pays less than Medicare or regular insurance companies. In June, many American nursing homes were caught throwing their regular patients out so they could make room for COVID-19 patients who could pay them more. Because nursing homes had stopped allowing visitors, it took longer for them to get caught. United States law requires nursing homes to warn patients 30 days before kicking them out, but the nursing homes did not do this.

Some of the nursing homes took the COVID-19 patients because state governments asked them to and they say they sent their elderly residents away because they were worried they would catch COVID-19 from the sick patients.[406]

Environment[change | change source]

Because so many governments told people to stay at home, there was less air pollution than usual for that time of year. Pollution in New York fell by 50% and the use of coal in China fell by 40%.[407] The European Space Agency showed pictures taken from a satellite of China's pollution disappearing during quarantine and coming back when everyone went back to work.[408]

The pandemic and shudowns made people use less electricity. In the United States, people got more of their electricity from renewable power like wind and solar power than from coal power. This was because coal plants, which tend to be older, are more expensive to run than solar or wind or natural gas, so power companies used them less.[409]

Pollution from before the pandemic also affected what happened after people became sick. Scientists saw that more people died from COVID-19 in places with large amounts of air pollution. One team of scientists from Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg looked at air pollution information from satellites and statistics on COVID-19 deaths in Italy, France, Germany and Spain and saw that places with large amounts of nitrogen dioxide pollution had more people die from COVID-19. Nitrogen dioxide can damage the lungs.[410][411]

The shutdowns and social distancing also affected animals. Human beings started staying at home about the same time in the spring when sea turtles like to come on land to lay their eggs. Turtle scientists in the United States and Thailand both reported more nests than usual on seashores in Florida and Phuket. They say it is because people are not coming to the beach or bringing their dogs to the beach and because there are fewer boats in the water nearby. Scientists also say they see more dugong and dolphins.[412][413][414] The pandemic meant there were fewer cars driving down roads, so salamanders, frogs, and other amphibians were able to cross them for their spring migration. According to citizen scientists from Big Night Maine, a group that watches amphibians, four amphibians made it across the roads alive for every one amphibian killed by cars. Most years, it is only two to one.[415]

Not all ocean mammals did well. According to marine biologists in Florida, manatee deaths in April and May were 20% higher than in 2019. They say this was because many people decided to go boating because other things to do were closed.[416]

Stopping the next pandemic[change | change source]

Researchers from the San Diego Zoo Global had the idea for a system that people could use to find dangerous germs before they become pandemics or even before they jump from other animals to humans. They said it was important to watch the wildlife trade, like in the Wuhan wet market. The scientists said that over the past eleven years it has gotten easier and easier to sequence viral genomes, and it does not have to be done by a large lab or by a government any more. The scientists said it would be better to spread the work out among more people.[417][418]

List of terminology associated with COVID-19[change | change source]

  • SARS-CoV-2 is the virus that causes COVID-19
  • 2019-nCoV is the old name for SARS-CoV-2
  • Coronavirus disease 2019 is another name for COVID-19
  • community spread is the spread of the disease without a known travel connection
  • clusters are groups of COVID-19 cases in which many people in the same area became infected with COVID-19
  • lockdown
  • presumptive confirmed positive
  • quarantine
  • sealed off

Notes[change | change source]

  1. In summary, this article is about the coronavirus pandemic, which is caused by the disease COVID-19, which is caused by the virus SARS‑CoV‑2.[1]
  2. 2.0 2.1 Cases: This number shows the cumulative number of confirmed human cases reported tireo date. The actual number of infections and cases is likely to be higher than reported.[23] Reporting criteria and testing capacity vary between countries.
    The total number of cases may not necessarily add up due to the frequency of values being updated for each location.
  3. To summarize, this article is about the pandemic, which is caused by the disease COVID-19, which is caused by the virus SARS-CoV-2.
  4. Locations: Countries, territories, and international conveyances where cases were diagnosed. The nationality of the infected and the origin of infection may vary. For some countries, cases are split into respective territories and noted accordingly.
  5. Deaths: Reporting criteria vary between countries.
    The total number of deaths may not necessarily add up due to the frequency of values being updated for each location.
  6. Recoveries: May not correspond to actual current figures and not all recoveries may be reported. Reporting criteria vary between countries.
    The total number of recoveries may not necessarily add up due to the frequency of values being updated for each location.
  7. Worldwide
    1. Some locations, including North Korea, have yet to report cases.
  8. United States
    1. Figures include cases identified on the Grand Princess.
    2. Figures do not include the unincorporated territories of Puerto Rico, Guam, Northern Mariana Islands, and U.S. Virgin Islands, all of which are listed separately.
    3. Not all states or overseas territories report recovery data.
    4. Cases include clinically diagnosed cases as per CDC guidelines.[24]
    5. Recoveries and deaths include probable deaths and people released from quarantine as per CDC guidelines.[25][26][27]
    6. Figures from the United States Department of Defense are only released on a branch-by branch basis since April 2020, without distinction between domestic and foreign deployment, and cases may be reported to local health authorities.[28]
    7. Cases for the USS Theodore Roosevelt, currently docked at Guam, are reported separate from national figures but included in the Navy's totals.
    8. There is also one case reported from Guantanamo Bay Naval Base not included in any other nation or territory's counts.[29] Since April 2020, the United States Department of Defense has directed all bases, including Guantanamo Bay, to not publicize case statistics.[28]
  9. Brazil
    1. Since 6 June, Brazilian government has ordered the Ministry of Health to stop reporting the total number of deaths and active cases.[31][32] After this, the National Council of Health Secretaries assumed the function of reporting the total number of deaths and active cases.[33]
  10. Russia
    1. Including cases from the disputed Crimea and Sevastopol.
    2. Excluding the cases from Diamond Princess cruise ship which are classified as "on an international conveyance".
  11. United Kingdom
    1. Excluding all British Overseas Territories and Crown dependencies.
    2. As of 23 March 2020, the UK government does not publish the number of recoveries. The last update on 22 March reported 135 recovered patients.[38]
  12. Spain
    1. Excludes serology–confirmed cases.
  13. Chile
    1. Including the special territory of Easter Island.
    2. On 2 June 2020, the Chilean government decided to not publish the number of recovered patients.
  14. Germany
    1. Not all state authorities count recoveries.[48]
    2. Recoveries include estimations by the Robert Koch Institute.[48][49]
  15. France
    1. Including overseas regions of French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Mayotte and Réunion, and collectivities of Saint Barthélemy and Saint Martin.
    2. Excluding collectivities of New Caledonia, French Polynesia and Saint Pierre and Miquelon.
    3. Recoveries only include hospitalized cases.[54]
    4. Figures for total confirmed cases and total deaths include data from both hospital and nursing home (ESMS: établissements sociaux et médico-sociaux).[54]
  16. China
    1. Excluding 110 asymptomatic cases under medical observation as of 18 June 2020.
    2. Asymptomatic cases were not reported before 31 March 2020.
    3. Excluding Special Administrative Regions of Hong Kong and Macau.
    4. Does not include Taiwan.
  17. Belgium
    1. The number of deaths also includes untested cases and cases in retirement homes that presumably died because of COVID-19, whilst most countries only include deaths of tested cases in hospitals.[61]
  18. Egypt
    1. Includes cases identified on the MS River Anuket.
  19. Netherlands
    1. The Kingdom of the Netherlands consists of a) the Netherlands* [the country as opposed to the kingdom; listed here], which in turn includes the Caribbean Netherlands, that are made up of the special municipalities Bonaire*, Saba* and Sint Eustatius*; b) Aruba*; c) Curaçao*; and d) Sint Maarten*. All regions marked with an asterisk are listed separately.
    2. The Dutch Government agency RIVM, responsible for the constituent country the Netherlands, does not count its number of recoveries.[67]
  20. Argentina
    1. Excluding confirmed cases on the claimed territory of the Falkland Islands. Since 11 April, the Argentine Ministry of Health includes them in their official reports.[76]
  21. Ukraine
    1. Excluding cases from the disputed Crimea and Sevastopol. Cases in these territories are included in the Russian total.
    2. Excluding cases from the unrecognized Donetsk and Lugansk People's Republics.
  22. Israel
    1. Including cases from the disputed Golan Heights.
    2. Excluding cases from the Palestinian National Authority.
  23. 23.0 23.1 Diamond Princess and Japan
    1. The British cruise ship Diamond Princess was in Japanese waters, and the Japanese administration was asked to manage its quarantine, with the passengers having not entered Japan. Therefore, this case is included in neither the Japanese nor British official counts. The World Health Organization classifies the cases as being located "on an international conveyance".
  24. Moldova
    1. Including the disputed territory of Transnistria.
  25. Serbia
    1. Excluding cases from the disputed territory of Kosovo.
  26. Denmark
    1. The autonomous territories of the Faroe Islands and Greenland are listed separately.
  27. Azerbaijan
    1. Excluding the self-declared state of Artsakh.
  28. Morocco
    1. Including cases in the disputed Western Sahara territory controlled by Morocco. There are no confirmed cases in the rest of Western Sahara.[113]
  29. Norway
    1. Estimation of the number of infected:
      • As of 23 March 2020, according to figures from just over 40 per cent of all GPs in Norway, 20,200 patients have been registered with the "corona code" R991. The figure includes both cases where the patient has been diagnosed with coronavirus infection through testing, and where the GP has used the "corona code" after assessing the patient's symptoms against the criteria by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health.[115]
      • As of 24 March 2020, the Norwegian Institute of Public Health estimates that between 7,120 and 23,140 Norwegians are infected with the coronavirus.[116]
  30. Australia
    1. Excluding the cases from Diamond Princess cruise ship which are classified as "on an international conveyance". Ten cases, including one fatality recorded by the Australian government.
  31. Finland
    1. Including the autonomous region of the Åland Islands.
    2. The number of recoveries is an estimate based on reported cases which were reported at least two weeks ago and there is no other monitoring data on the course of the disease.[123] The exact number of recoveries is not known, as only a small proportion of patients have been hospitalized.[124]
  32. DR Congo
  33. Somalia
    1. Excluding the de facto state of Somaliland.
  34. Cuba
    1. Includes cases on the MS Braemar.
    2. Excluding cases from Guantanamo Bay, which is governed by the United States.
  35. 35.0 35.1 Guam and USS Theodore Roosevelt
    1. Cases for the USS Theodore Roosevelt, currently docked at Guam, are reported separately.
  36. Charles de Gaulle
    1. Including cases on the escort frigate Chevalier Paul.
    2. Florence Parly, Minister of the Armed Forces, reported to the National Assembly's National Defense and Armed Forces Committee [fr] that 2010 sailors of the carrier battle group led by Charles de Gaulle had been tested, with 1081 tests returning positive so far.[185] Many of these cases were aboard Charles de Gaulle, some of the cases were reportedly aboard French frigate Chevalier Paul, and it is unclear if any other ships in the battle group had cases on board.[186][187][188]
  37. Cyprus
  38. 38.0 38.1 Donetsk and Luhansk People's Republic
    1. Note that these territories are distinct from the Ukraine-administered regions of the Donetsk and Luhansk Oblasts.
  39. Georgia
    1. Excluding the de facto states of Abkhazia and South Ossetia.
  40. Congo
    1. Also known as the Republic of the Congo and not to be confused with the DR Congo.
  41. 41.0 41.1 Greg Mortimer and Uruguay
    1. Although currently anchored off the coast of Uruguay, cases for the Greg Mortimer are currently reported separately. Six have been transferred inland for hospitalization.
  42. Somaliland
    1. Cases from this de facto state are not counted by Somalia.
  43. Taiwan
    1. Including cases from the ROCS Pan Shi.[229]
  44. Isle of Man
    1. Recoveries are presumed. Defined as "An individual testing positive for coronavirus who completes the 14 day self-isolation period from the onset of symptoms who is at home on day 15, or an individual who is discharged from hospital following more severe symptoms."[234]
  45. Syria
    1. Excluding cases from the disputed Golan Heights.
  46. Northern Cyprus
    1. Cases from this de facto state are not counted by Cyprus.
  47. Artsakh
    1. Cases from this de facto state are not counted by Azerbaijan.
  48. South Ossetia
    1. Cases from this de facto state are not counted by Georgia.
  49. Abkhazia
    1. Cases from this de facto state are not counted by Georgia.
  50. Saint Vincent
    1. The sovereign state of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines.
  51. MS Zaandam
    1. Including cases from MS Rotterdam.
    2. The MS Rotterdam rendezvoused with the Zaandam on 26 March off the coast of Panama City to provide support and evacuate healthy passengers. Both have since docked in Florida.[296][297]
    3. MS Zaandam and Rotterdam's numbers are currently not counted in any national figures.
  52. Coral Princess
    1. The cruise ship Coral Princess has tested positive cases since early April 2020 and has since docked in Miami.[300]
    2. Coral Princess's numbers are currently not counted in any national figures.
  53. HNLMS Dolfijn
    1. All 8 cases currently associated with Dolfijn were reported while the submarine was at sea in the waters between Scotland and the Netherlands.[307]
    2. It is unclear whether the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) is including these cases in their total count, but neither their daily update details nor their daily epidemiological situation reports appear to have mentioned the ship, with a breakdown of cases listing the twelve provinces of the country of the Netherlands (as opposed to the kingdom) accounting for all the cases in the total count.[308][309]

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