2022 Brazilian general election

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Presidential election
2 October 2022 (2022-10-02) (first round)
30 October 2022 (2022-10-30) (second round)
Opinion polls
Turnout79.05% (first round)
79.41% (second round)
  2022 - Convenção Nacional do PSB - 52250142331 (cropped).jpg Bolsonaro UN 2022.jpg
Candidate Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva Jair Bolsonaro
Party Workers' Party Liberal Party
Alliance Brazil of Hope For the Good of Brazil
Home state São Paulo[a] Rio de Janeiro[b]
Running mate Geraldo Alckmin Walter Braga Netto
Popular vote 60,345,999 58,206,354
Percentage 50.90% 49.10%

2022 Brazil Presidential Elections, Round 2.svg
2022 Brazil Presidential Elections, Round 1.svg
Presidential election results

President before election

Jair Bolsonaro
PL

Elected President

Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva
PT

General elections took place on 2 October 2022 in Brazil to elect the President, Vice President, and the National Congress.[1] A run-off was held on 30 October.

There were more than 146 million registered voters in Brazil when this election took place, making the country the second largest democracy in the Americas and one of the largest in the world.[2][3]

On 5 May 2022, President Jair Bolsonaro ordered an audit on the country's voting machines, five months before the election, with people believing should he lose the election he would not accept defeat.[4]

On 2 October 2022, former President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva advanced to the run-off election on 30 October against President Bolsonaro.[5] Lula won 48.43% of the vote against Bolsonaro's 43.20%.[6]

On 30 October, Lula defeated Bolsonaro winning 50.90% of the vote against Bolsonaro's 49.10%.[7] Two days later, Bolsonaro did not say he lost the election however agreed to a transition of power. After Bolsonaro lost, his supporters began blocking several roads and bridges.[8]

On 8 January 2023, one week after Lula's inauguration, supporters of Bolsonaro stormed and invaded the Supreme Court of Brazil, the National Congress of Brazil and the Planalto Presidential Palace in the Praça dos Três Poderes plaza in Brasília, the federal capital.

Voting rules[change | change source]

To vote in Brazil, voters must be citizens over 16 years old and is mandatory for those between 18 and 70 years old. Those who do not vote in an election and do not show a reason why must pay a fine, normally R$3.51[9][10][11] (same as US$0.67 as of June 2022).[12]

Brazilian citizens living abroad may only vote for president and vice president.[13] Portuguese citizens legally living in Brazil for more than three years may also register to vote in Brazilian elections.[14]

Other elections[change | change source]

Other national elections will be held at the same time as the presidential election. Governors and Vice Governors of Brazil's states and of the Federal District will also be elected at the same time.

One-third of the 81 members of the Federal Senate will be elected, the other two-thirds having been elected in 2018.[15]

All 513 members of the Chamber of Deputies (Federal Deputies) will be elected. The Chamber elections are held using open list proportional representation.[16][17]

Main presidential candidates[change | change source]

Candidates in runoff[change | change source]

Party Presidential candidate[18] Vice presidential candidate[c] Coalition
Workers' Party
(PT 13)
Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (campaign)

President of Brazil (2003–2010)
Federal Deputy for São Paulo (1987–1991)

Geraldo Alckmin Geraldo Alckmin (PSB)

Governor of São Paulo (2001–2006, 2011–2018)
Vice Governor of São Paulo (1995–2001)

Brazil of Hope:
Liberal Party
(PL 22)
Jair Bolsonaro Jair Bolsonaro (campaign)

President of Brazil (since 2019)
Federal Deputy for Rio de Janeiro (1991–2018)

Walter Braga Netto Walter Braga Netto

Minister of Defence (2021–2022)
Chief of Staff of the Presidency (2020–2021)

For the Good of Brazil:

Eliminated in first round[change | change source]

Withdrawn[change | change source]

Debates[change | change source]

As of April 2022, the following TV stations confirmed presidential debates:[27]

2022 Brazilian presidential election debates
No. Date, time and location Hosts Moderators Participants[e]
Key:
 P  Present  A  Absent  I  Invited  Out  Out of the election
PL PT NOVO PDT MDB UNIÃO PTB
Bolsonaro Lula d'Avila Gomes Tebet Thronicke Souza
1.1 Sunday, 28 August 2022, 21:00, São Paulo[30] Bandeirantes, TV Cultura, Folha, UOL Adriana Araújo, Eduardo Oinegue, Fabíola Cidral, Leão Serva P P P P P P Out[f]
1.2 Saturday, 24 September 2022, 18:15, Osasco[31] SBT, CNN Brazil, Estado, Veja, Terra, NovaBrasil FM Carlos Nascimento P A P P P P P
1.3 Thursday, 29 September 2022, 22:30, Rio de Janeiro[32] Globo William Bonner P P P P P P P
2.1 Sunday, 16 October 2022, 20:00, São Paulo[33] Bandeirantes, TV Cultura, Folha, UOL Adriana Araújo, Eduardo Oinegue, Fabíola Cidral, Leão Serva P P Out
2.2 Monday, 17 October 2022, Osasco[34] RedeTV! TBD P P Out
2.3 Friday, 21 October 2022, 21:30, Osasco[35] SBT, CNN Brazil, Estado, Veja, Terra, NovaBrasil FM Carlos Nascimento I I Out
2.4 Sunday, 23 October 2022, São Paulo[34] Record TBD I I Out
2.5 Friday, 28 October 2022, 21:30, Rio de Janeiro[36] Globo TBD I I Out

Opinion polling[change | change source]

First round[change | change source]

Local regression of polls conducted

Polling average[change | change source]

Aggregator Last update Jair Bolsonaro
PL
Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva
PT
Ciro Gomes
PDT
Simone Tebet
MDB
Others
[g]
Abst.
Undec.
Lead
The Economist[37] 1 Oct 2022 38% 51% 5% 6% (N/A) (N/A) Lula +13.0
Veja[38] 1 Oct 2022 33.7% 44.7% 6.8% 4.7% (N/A) (N/A) Lula +11.0
Estadão[39] 1 Oct 2022 33% 47% 5% 6% 2% 7% Lula +14.0
CNN Brasil[40] 1 Oct 2022 34% 48% 5% 6% 2% 6% Lula +14.0
PollingData[41] 1 Oct 2022 37.5% 43.7% 5.1% 5.3% 1.9% 6.5% Lula +6.2
El Pais[42] 1 Oct 2022 35.3% 46.7% 6.0% 4.9% (N/A) (N/A) Lula +11.4
El Electoral[43] 1 Oct 2022 38.5% 48.5% 5.5% 5.0% (N/A) (N/A) Lula +10.0
Pollstergraph[44] 1 Oct 2022 37.1% 44.8% 5.6% 4.7% Lula +7.7

Second round[change | change source]

Local regression of polls conducted

Polling average[change | change source]

Aggregator Last update Jair Bolsonaro
PL
Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva
PT
Blank/Null/
Undec.
Lead
The Economist[45] 16 Oct 2022 48% 52% (N/A) Lula +4.0
Estadão[46] 14 Oct 2022 41% 49% 10% Lula +8.0
PollingData 14 Oct 2022 44.3% 47.4% 8% Lula +3.1
CNN Brasil 12 Oct 2022 42% 50% 8% Lula +8.0

Bolsonaro's claims of fraud[change | change source]

Bolsonaro has said that Brazilian electronic ballots might make vote rigging easier.[47][48][49][50]

During the 2018 elections, many social media platforms had fake claims that electronic ballots had been set up to support candidates other than Bolsonaro, and that he had won the presidential election in the first round.[51] However none of these claims were proven true.[52] As president, Bolsonaro kept on saying that the 2022 election will have fraud voting and wanted to have an election audit.[53]

In July 2022, Bolsonaro said that the voting system in Brazil was weak and that it was possible for voter fraud and rigging to happen in the 2022 election.[54] Brazilian and international law experts, political analysts, and authorities have said Bolsonaro's claims are not true. Many worry that Bolsonaro's false fraud claims might be seen as a self-coup, such as the 2021 United States Capitol attack, should Bolsonaro lose the election.[55][56][57][58] Bolsonaro has looked for police and military support, which many saw as him planning a coup should he lose.[59]

2023 invasion of the Brazilian Congress[change | change source]

On 8 January 2023, supporters of former President Jair Bolsonaro stormed and invaded the Praça dos Três Poderes in Brasília, taking over the offices of the Supreme Federal Court, National Congress of Brazil and the Palácio do Planalto.[60] The event was seen as an attempted coup d'état to overturn the election results of the 2022 general election.[61]

Results[change | change source]

CandidateRunning matePartyFirst roundSecond round
Votes%Votes%
Luiz Inácio Lula da SilvaGeraldo Alckmin (PSB)Workers' Party57,259,50448.430
Jair Bolsonaro (incumbent)Walter Braga NettoLiberal Party51,072,34543.200
Simone TebetMara Gabrilli (PSDB)Brazilian Democratic Movement4,915,4234.16
Ciro GomesAna Paula MatosDemocratic Labour Party3,599,2873.04
Soraya ThronickeMarcos CintraBrazil Union600,9550.51
Luiz Felipe d'AvilaTiago MitraudNew Party559,7080.47
Kelmon SouzaLuiz Cláudio GamonalBrazilian Labour Party81,1290.07
Leonardo PériclesSamara MartinsPopular Unity53,5190.05
Sofia ManzanoAntonio AlvesBrazilian Communist Party45,6200.04
Vera Lúcia SalgadoKunã Yporã TremembéUnited Socialist Workers' Party25,6250.02
José Maria EymaelJoão Barbosa BravoChristian Democracy16,6040.01
Total118,229,719100.000
Valid votes118,229,71995.590
Invalid votes3,487,8742.820
Blank votes1,964,7791.590
Total votes123,682,372100.000100.00
Registered voters/turnout156,453,35479.05156,453,3540.00
Source: Superior Electoral Court

Notes[change | change source]

  1. Born in Pernambuco, domiciled in São Paulo.
  2. Born in São Paulo, domiciled in Rio de Janeiro.
  3. Same party as the presidential candidate, unless mentioned in parentheses
  4. PTB initially nominated Roberto Jefferson for president and Kelmon Souza for vice president. On 1 September 2022, the Superior Electoral Court denied Jefferson's candidacy and ruled him ineligible for public office until 24 December 2023 because of a past criminal conviction. After this ruling, the party nominated Kelmon Souza for president and Luiz Cláudio Gamonal for vice president.[20]
  5. Debates broadcast on television or radio were legally required to invite all candidates whose parties or coalitions had at least five members in the National Congress based on the most recent election.[28] The candidates listed in this table satisfied this condition.[29]
  6. Roberto Jefferson, the candidate of PTB at the time of this debate, was not invited as his eligibility was disputed. He was later ruled ineligible and replaced by Kelmon Souza.
  7. This column presents the sum of candidates who do not reach 3% frequently.

References[change | change source]

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  19. 19.0 19.1 19.2 Tebet will vote to Lula and together with Cardoso and Gomes hit Bolsonaro's calculations
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  34. 34.0 34.1 "Debates do segundo turno já têm data marcada – saiba se Bolsonaro e Lula vão se enfrentar novamente" [Debates for the second round already have schedule dates – know if Bolsonaro and Lula will face each other again] (in Portuguese). Seu Dinheiro. 6 October 2022.
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