Afghan Civil War (1928–1929)

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The Afghan Civil War was a war going on from 14 November 1928 to 13 October 1929. The Saqqawist group and the Soviet Union decided to invade the Kingdom of Afghanistan and ended up in a defeat.

Beginning[change | change source]

On 14 November 1928, the civil war started with the Shinwari Revolt; Pashtun tribesmen from the Shinwari tribe started a siege of Jalalabad; [1] telegraph wires were also cut; a manifesto had a list of grievances (or complaints); some of those complaints were in some way about changing the status of women.[2]

Siege of Jabal al-Siraj[change | change source]

Kalakani became king of Afghanistan in 1929. (The picture was taken the same month of his execution.)

Forces led by a Tajik leader, Habibullah Kalakani, were moving toward Kabul from the north. Kalakani was a native of Kalakan, a village thirty kilometers north of Kabul. In late November, they put siege to Jabal al-Siraj, north of Kabul, and on either 11 or 12 December, after 18 days of siege, Ahmad Ali Lodi surrendered the citadel, and handed over (or gave) all government funds as well as 18 machine guns, and some heavy weapons and rifles.

After king Amanullah's loss of power (January 1929)[change | change source]

King Amanullah, or Amanullah Khan, lost power in January 1929

Rule by king Kalakani, and Saqqawist offensives (February – August 1929)[change | change source]

Kalakani became King of Afghanistan.[3]

Ali Ahmad Khan was captured; his reign ended on 9 February.[4]

Ali Ahmad Khan

Kalakan's forces did fight anti-Saqqawist tribes.

Saqqawist collapse, and end of the civil war (August – October 1929)[change | change source]

On 8 August, an anti-Saqqawist uprising took place in Bamyan, Ghuri and Baghlan, blocking Kalakani's force's route to Turkistan and forcing them to retreat to Ghurband. On 21 August, the Sayyid of Shaykh Ali started an offensive (or attack) against Kalakani, advancing as far as Khanabad, Andarab and Ghurband. On 26 August, there were rumours in Kabul that Hazara settlers successfully attacked Mazar-i Sharif. In early September, the Saqqawists won their last victory by taking Jalalabad. On 23 September, a pro-Nadir uprising in Kandahar succeeded at driving out Kalakani's forces from the city. On 29 September, a pro-Nadir force under Shah Wali crossed the Durand Line and occupied Khushi. On the 30th, he sent a 1000-man force ahead to Tangi Waghjan, the gorge on the road to the Logar Valley. On 3 October, after an intense battle, anti-Saqqawist forces captured the town of Muhammad Aghah, placing themselves within striking distance of Kabul. Kalakani himself took part in this battle, trying to lift his soldier's spirits, to no avail. anti-Saqqawist forces continued to slowly push towards Kabul, seizing Charasya, Chihil Tan and Chihil Sutun on 5 October. By 7 October, Kalakani's forces had retreated from almost all territory outside Kabul, and prepared for their last stand.[5]

On 9 October, after dozens of hours of street fighting in Kabul, the Arg was put under siege. On 13 October, after several days of bombardment, Nadir's forces entered the Arg. After a battle, the Arg was captured, and the civil war ended.

Related pages[change | change source]

References[change | change source]

  1. Ali, Mohammed (1933). Progressive Afghanistan. Punjab Educational Electric Press. pp. 15.
  2. Muḥammad, Fayz̤; Hazārah, Fayz̤ Muḥammad Kātib (1999). Kabul Under Siege: Fayz Muhammad's Account of the 1929 Uprising. Markus Wiener Publishers. p. 15. ISBN 9781558761551.
  3. Muḥammad, Fayz̤; McChesney, R. D. (1999). Kabul under siege: Fayz Muhammad's account of the 1929 Uprising. Markus Wiener Publishers. pp. 57, 58. ISBN 9781558761544.
  4. "Afghanistan". Retrieved 2019-01-20.
  5. Muḥammad, Fayz̤; Hazārah, Fayz̤ Muḥammad Kātib (1999). Kabul Under Siege: Fayz Muhammad's Account of the 1929 Uprising. Markus Wiener Publishers. p. 274. ISBN 9781558761551.