Afghan Civil War (1992–1996)

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Much of the civil infrastructure was in ruins in Kabul due to the war. This photo of Jada Maiwand is from c. 1993.

The Afghan Civil War was going on from 1992 to 1996.

War over Kabul (28 April 1992–93)[change | change source]

Fighting over Kabul started on 25 April 1992. The six armies fighting were Hezb-e Islami Gulbuddin, Jamiat-e Islami, Harakat-i-Inqilab-i-Islami, Ittehad-e Islami, Hezb-i Wahdat and Junbish-i Milli. Mujahideen warlord Gulbuddin Hekmatyar, the leader of Hezb-e Islami Gulbuddin, was offered the position of prime minister in President Mujaddidi's government - an interim. But this agreement was broken on 29 May when Mujaddidi accused Hekmatyar of having rockets fired at his airplane.[1]

By 30 May 1992, Jamiat-e Islami and Junbish-i Milli mujahideen forces were fighting against Hekmatyar's Hezb-e Islami Gulbuddin again in southern Kabul.

In May[2] or early June, Hekmatyar's forces started [ firing cannons and grenade launcher toward targets] all around Kabul.[1][3] Much support came from the Pakistani Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI).[2] Junbish-i Milli and Jamiat-e Islami in June shelled [or fired cannons and grenade launchers toward targets in] areas south of Kabul. Ittehad-e Islami and Hezb-i Wahdat were fighting each other in west Kabul. At the end of June 1992, Burhanuddin Rabbani took over as (acting or) interim president of Afghanistan.[1] That government was weak, even from its start in April 1992.[4]

In the rest of 1992, hundreds of rockets hit Kabul, thousands, mostly civilians, were killed, half a million people fled the city. In 1993, the rivalling militia factions continued their fights over Kabul, several cease-fires and peace accords failed. According to Human Rights Watch, in the period 1992–95, five different mujahideen armies contributed to heavily damaging Kabul,[5][6] though other analysts blame especially the Hezb-e Islami Gulbuddin group.[2][7]

Taliban take-over[change | change source]

Map showing political control in Afghanistan in the fall of 1996, following the capture of Kabul by the Taliban.

On 25 September, the strategic town[8] of Sarobi, an eastern outpost of Kabul, fell to the Taliban[9] who captured it from interim government troops.[8] 50 people were killed and the Taliban captured many arms from fleeing government soldiers.[8]

On 26 September, with the Taliban attacking Kabul,[8] interim minister of defense Ahmad Shah Massoud in his headquarters in northern Kabul concluded that his and President Rabbani’s interim government's forces had been encircled,[9] and decided to quickly evacuate[9] or withdraw[8] those forces to the north,[9][8] to avoid destruction.[9] Also Hekmatyar, leader of Hezb-e Islami Gulbuddin, withdrew from Kabul.[8]

By nightfall,[9] or on the next day of 27 September,[8] the Taliban had conquered Kabul.[9][8] Taliban's leader Muhammad Umar appointed his deputy, Mullah Muhammad Rabbani, as head of a national ruling council which was called Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan.[8] By now, the Taliban controlled most of Afghanistan.[10]

Related pages[change | change source]

References[change | change source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Sifton, John (6 July 2005). Blood-Stained Hands: Past Atrocities in Kabul and Afghanistan's Legacy of Impunity (ch. III, Battle for Kabul 1992-93) (Report). Human Rights Watch.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Saikal (2004), p. 352.
  3. [dead link] Kent, Arthur (9 September 2007). "Warnings About al Qaeda Ignored By The West". SKY Reporter. Archived from the original on 2 February 2013.
  4. "The Peshawar Accord, April 25, 1992". Website photius.com. Text from 1997, purportedly sourced on The Library of Congress Country Studies (USA) and CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 22 December 2017.
  5. "Afghanistan: The massacre in Mazar-i Sharif. (Chapter II: Background)". Human Rights Watch. November 1998. Archived from the original on 2 November 2008. Retrieved 2 March 2020.
  6. Sifton, John (6 July 2005). Blood-Stained Hands: Past Atrocities in Kabul and Afghanistan's Legacy of Impunity (ch. III, Battle for Kabul 1992-93; see under § Violations of International Humanitarian Law) (Report). Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 2 March 2020.
  7. Jamilurrahman, Kamgar (2000). Havadess-e Tarikhi-e Afghanistan 1990–1997. Peshawar Markaz-e Nashrati. translation by Human Rights Watch. Meyvand. pp. 66–68.
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 8.8 8.9 Afghanistan: Chronology of Events January 1995 - February 1997 (PDF) (Report). Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada. February 1997.
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 Coll (2004), p. 14.
  10. Country profile: Afghanistan (published August 2008) (page 3). Library of Congress. Retrieved 13 February 2018.